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Journal of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering
JCGIRM
Journal of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering (JCHE)
JEMSE
ISSN (print): 2958-0579
ISSN (online): 2958-0587
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2024: Vol. 2
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The Journal of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering (JCHE) stands as a pivotal publication in the fields of civil and hydraulic engineering, renowned for its dedication to exploring the complexities and advancements in these disciplines. As a peer-reviewed, open-access journal, JCHE prides itself on fostering a rich academic dialogue that delves into the latest research, methodologies, and applications within civil and hydraulic engineering. The journal's unique focus extends beyond theoretical studies, offering insights into the practical and impactful aspects of engineering in our evolving world. Published quarterly by Acadlore, the journal typically releases its four issues in March, June, September, and December each year.

  • Professional Service - Every article submitted undergoes an intensive yet swift peer review and editing process, adhering to the highest publication standards.

  • Prompt Publication - Thanks to our proficiency in orchestrating the peer-review, editing, and production processes, all accepted articles see rapid publication.

  • Open Access - Every published article is instantly accessible to a global readership, allowing for uninhibited sharing across various platforms at any time.

Editor(s)-in-chief(1)
hongyang zhang
North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, China
zhyncwu@163.com | website
Research interests: Hydraulic Engineering Experiment; Numerical Analysis; Safety Evaluation

Aims & Scope

Aims

The Journal of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering (JCHE) is a pioneering, international open-access journal dedicated to disseminating the latest advancements in civil and hydraulic engineering. Our mission is to cultivate a comprehensive understanding and innovative solutions in a range of subfields including civil structures and materials, hydraulic and geotechnical engineering, and water resources management. JCHE is committed to promoting the integration of theory and practice, encouraging the submission of original works in various formats such as reviews, regular research papers, short communications, and special issues on specific topics. Our focus is on the articulation of novel concepts, methodologies, and technologies that propel forward the knowledge and application in these interrelated fields.

The objective of JCHE is to be a leading source for in-depth research and insights, encouraging authors to present their findings with extensive detail for replication and broader understanding. Thus, the journal imposes no restrictions on the length of papers, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive documentation. Additional features of the journal include:

  • Every publication benefits from prominent indexing, ensuring widespread recognition.

  • A distinguished editorial team upholds unparalleled quality and broad appeal.

  • Seamless online discoverability of each article maximizes its global reach.

  • An author-centric and transparent publication process enhances submission experience.

Scope

The scope of JCHE encompasses a broad spectrum of topics within civil and hydraulic engineering, including but not limited to:

  • Civil structures and materials: Exploring the latest developments in construction materials and methodologies.

  • Geotechnical and foundation engineering: Investigating soil mechanics, foundation design, and their impact on structures.

  • Underground and tunnel engineering: Delving into the challenges and innovations in subterranean construction.

  • Road, bridge, and railway engineering: Focusing on the design, maintenance, and sustainability of transportation infrastructure.

  • Civil engineering disaster prevention: Addressing the strategies for mitigating natural and man-made disasters.

  • Building environment and energy application engineering: Exploring sustainable practices in building design and energy management.

  • Electrical and intelligent buildings: Integrating smart technologies for efficient and responsive building environments.

  • Engineering hydrology and water resource utilization: Examining the dynamics of water flow and its practical applications.

  • Agricultural and rural water conservancy: Focusing on water management in agricultural and rural contexts.

  • Hydraulics and river dynamics: Studying fluid mechanics and its application to river systems.

  • Harbor, waterway, and coastal engineering: Addressing the challenges of constructing and maintaining maritime infrastructure.

  • Hydraulic machinery and systems: Exploring the design and application of hydraulic systems.

  • Water resources and hydropower engineering: Delving into the sustainable harnessing of water for energy.

  • Ecological water conservancy: Investigating the intersection of ecology and water management for sustainable practices.

  • Smart water conservancy: Integrating technology for enhanced water management.

  • Risk assessment in hydraulic engineering: Analyzing the potential risks and safety measures in hydraulic projects.

  • Water economy: Studying the economic aspects of water resource management and policy.

  • Urban water supply and drainage science: Exploring the technologies and methodologies for urban water management.

  • Urban sewage treatment and resource utilization: Focusing on innovative approaches to waste water management and recycling.

  • Water environment pollution control and restoration: Addressing the challenges in maintaining and restoring water quality.

  • Regional and urban water ecological environment systems: Investigating the integration of water management in urban planning.

  • Risk control in water ecological environments: Assessing and mitigating risks in water-related ecosystems.

Articles
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Abstract

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Recent observations of global warming phenomena have necessitated the evaluation of the service performance of asphalt pavements, which is substantially influenced by surface temperature levels. This study employed twelve distinct machine learning algorithms—K-neighbors, linear regression, multi-layer perceptron, lasso, ridge, support vector regression, decision tree, AdaBoost, random forest, extra tree, gradient boosting, and XGBoost—to predict the surface temperature of asphalt pavements. Data were sourced from the Road Weather Information System of Iowa State University, comprising 12,581 data points including air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed, wind direction, wind gust, and pavement sensor temperature. These data were segmented into training (80%) and testing (20%) datasets. Analysis of model outcomes indicated that the Extra Tree algorithm was superior, exhibiting the highest R$^2$ value of 0.95, whereas the Support Vector Regression algorithm recorded the lowest, with an R$^2$ value of 0.70. Furthermore, Shapley Additive Explanations were utilized to interpret model results, providing insights into the contributions of various predictors to model outcomes. The findings affirm that machine learning algorithms are effective for predicting asphalt pavement surface temperatures, thereby supporting pavement management systems in adapting to changing environmental conditions.

Open Access
Research article
Mechanisms of Cracking and Stress Control During the Construction Phase of Concrete Face Rockfill Dams in Cold Regions
junbang duan ,
qiujing zhou ,
wendong zhao ,
jinghong zhao ,
jianbo li ,
yanna li
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Available online: 04-09-2024

Abstract

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The construction phase of concrete face rockfill dams is often marred by prominent panel cracking issues, with a lack of reliable foundations for anti-cracking design. To control tensile stresses and enhance crack resistance during construction, this study focuses on the primary factors influencing concrete panel stress in cold regions and the standards for crack resistance control. Through sensitivity analysis using simulation methods and incorporating case studies from typical projects, the mechanisms behind cracking were elucidated, and relevant recommendations were proposed. The research indicates that environmental temperatures in cold regions play a dominant role in load-related stresses, with daily temperature variations and cold waves acting as inducing factors. The impact of drying shrinkage is minimal under current conditions of adequate water curing, and the effect of panel deflection deformation is small. Regarding constraints, the influence of the bedding constraint is significant, whereas reinforcement measures have a minimal effect. Among performance parameters, casting temperature has a pronounced impact, as do autogenous volume changes and the coefficient of thermal expansion, while the influence of the adiabatic temperature rise varies insignificantly within a certain range. This study holds significant importance for the prevention of cracking in concrete face rockfill dam panels.

Abstract

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Dam deformation monitoring is a critical technical measure to ensure the safe and stable operation of dams. It involves measuring the structural deformation response of engineering dams using monitoring instruments or technological means. By analyzing the regularity and trend of deformation monitoring data, potential safety anomalies can be forecasted and warned against, providing timely and reliable data for the formulation and implementation of risk removal measures. Horizontal displacement, as the most intuitive and effective reflection of the dam's state under the action of internal and external loads and foundation deformation, is an indispensable part of dam safety monitoring. Currently, the plumb line method and the tensioned wire method are mainly used for horizontal displacement monitoring of dams. A plumb line coordinate instrument measures the horizontal deformation in the upstream and downstream directions and the left and right bank directions through two axes, or the radial and tangential horizontal displacements for arch dams. Compared to other principles, optoelectronic plumb line coordinate instruments have better long-term stability and anti-interference ability and are widely used on engineering sites. However, the orthogonality of the two measuring directions of the instrument is often overlooked. This paper starts from the principle of the development of the plumb line coordinate instrument, analyzes the source of instrument orthogonal error, and combines data collection, structural analysis, and experimental verification. By applying methods such as least squares and regression analysis, an effective calibration calculation and error correction method is proposed. This method is then programmed into the developed plumb line coordinate instrument to meet the real-time correction and output of measured values, providing a reliable technical method for the accuracy and continuous real-time remote monitoring of dam horizontal displacement monitoring. It also offers a technical path for the orthogonality testing of plumb line coordinate instruments.

Abstract

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Pile foundations, as one of the main foundation forms for bridges and offshore wind power structures, are prone to scour pits around them under the long-term action of water flow, leading to a decrease in bearing capacity. Traditional pile foundation scour prevention measures, such as the construction of protective jetties and riprap protection, are cumbersome and ineffective. Considering the inevitable generation of a large amount of spoil in engineering construction, by optimizing the performance of cement-stabilized soil, it is expected to use the discarded spoil for pile foundation scour management. Aiming at the underwater anti-dispersive cement-stabilized soil based on kaolin, 67 sets of single-factor rotation experiments were carried out to study the effects of changes in the addition of anti-dispersive agents ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) from 0‰ to 1‰, cement content from 8% to 14%, and water content from 1.4 to 2 times the liquid limit on the anti-dispersion performance, fluidity, and 7d and 28d unconfined compressive strength of the cement soil. The results show that the anti-dispersive agent HPMC can maximize the anti-dispersion performance of the cement soil, with the addition increased from 0‰ to 1‰, the anti-dispersion performance of the cement soil increased by 76.1%, but the fluidity decreased by 54.0%, and the strength of the 28d age cement soil increased by about 52.9%. Anti-dispersive agents can be added to quickly improve the anti-dispersion performance of the cement soil in pile foundation scour management, but attention should also be paid to its weakening effect on the fluidity of the cement soil; the increase in water content has the greatest impact on the fluidity of the cement soil, with the water content increased from 1.4 times the liquid limit to twice the liquid limit, the fluidity increased by 80.3%; the cement content increased from 8% to 14%, the unconfined compressive strength of the cement soil increased by more than double, and the anti-dispersion performance increased by 26.8%. Based on the experimental results, the recommended mix ratio of kaolin-based cement soil for pile foundation scour repair is: 0.75‰ EVA addition, 1.6 times the liquid limit water content, 10% cement content.

Abstract

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The construction, maintenance, and repair of civil infrastructure demand substantial economic investment, underscoring the necessity of structural health monitoring (SHM) to mitigate property loss resulting from structural failures. Within the domain of SHM systems, the integration of fiber-optic sensors (FOS) is distinguished by their diminutive size, lightweight nature, resistance to corrosion, and straightforward installation procedures, thus garnering widespread recognition. Despite the voluminous publications addressing this subject, comprehensive surveys employing bibliometric and scientometric methodologies remain scarce. This review scrutinizes 1066 publications spanning the past decade through scientometric examination, delineating publication trends, journals of significant contribution, leading researchers, foremost affiliations, and the prevalence of keywords. The analysis reveals a consistent upward trajectory in research activity, with the United States and China emerging as pivotal contributors. Employing VOS viewer for clustering visualization, the study categorizes keywords into discrete clusters, elucidating the breadth of applications and the interconnectedness of topics based on the strength of their associations. This investigation stands as a novel contribution, furnishing a holistic overview of FOS research within SHM, charting historical and current trends, and pinpointing emergent research avenues. The findings are poised to serve as an invaluable repository for scholars endeavoring to incorporate SHM systems equipped with FOS into their forthcoming investigations.

Abstract

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In response to the escalating pressures of urbanization and population growth on the ecosystems and flood risks in Bor County, Jonglei State, South Sudan, this study proposes the implementation of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as a resilience-building measure. Through the design of open drainage channels featuring non-uniform flow, inclusive of main and sub-channels alongside infiltration wells, the research aims at mitigating flooding, enhancing water quality, and fostering sustainable development within the region. The necessity for managing substantial runoff volumes has been identified, with a decade of rainfall data employed to accommodate annual variability. The evaluation of SUDS techniques to mitigate flooding entails a customized design approach, integrating cost estimation with flood mitigation strategies and the assessment of short- and long-term co-benefits. Hydrological analysis of ten years of rainfall data facilitated the sizing of channels for storm events ranging from 2 to 5 years, with precipitation intensities between 73.82 and 93.08 mm/day, resulting in the planning of open trapezoidal channels with dimensions to support 5 $m^3/s$ flows. Moreover, infiltration wells, with diameters of 2–3 meters and depths of 3-5 meters, have demonstrated potential in reducing runoff volumes by up to 70% in a 0.5-hectare modelled area. The incorporation of drop structures aims to control slopes ranging from 6-15% in channels, thereby preventing erosion for flows up to 20 $m^3/s$. The adaptability of SUDS approaches, commonly applied in developed nations, to the tropical environment of Bor is scrutinized, highlighting the necessity for localized adaptation due to data limitations and modelling simplifications. The potential barriers posed by capital costs underscore the importance of a life cycle analysis. The success of SUDS implementation in Bor County is contingent upon community engagement, ensuring acceptance and ownership. It is recommended that low-cost, simplistic pilot projects, focusing initially on rain gardens and permeable pavements, precede large-scale implementation. Through strategic planning, SUDS hold the potential to enhance climate resilience in the expanding community of Bor County. An integrated technical analysis provides actionable solutions for flood mitigation, advocating for further monitoring and community-driven initiatives to transition SUDS from concept to reality.

Open Access
Research article
Risk Assessment of High-grade Highway Construction Based on Combined Weighting and Fuzzy Mathematics
wei wu ,
mengmeng ma ,
xuezhong hu ,
bo xu ,
yufei chen ,
yutie jiao ,
zongkun li ,
wei ge ,
pieter van gelder
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Available online: 01-25-2024

Abstract

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High-grade highways are an important part of the modern comprehensive transportation system. However, due to frequent natural disasters, harsh meteorological conditions, and fragile geological environments, high-grade highway construction projects face significant risks, and how to specifically manage and control these construction risks to reduce them to a socially acceptable level has become a pressing technical issue. Therefore, this study combines the construction characteristics and risk features of high-grade highways, applies the Hall's three-dimensional structural theory to comprehensively identify potential risk factors from the dimensions of time, structure, and logic, and builds the logical dimension from four aspects: people, materials, environment, and management. To filter the main influencing factors, the Delphi method is adopted to construct a risk assessment indicator system, with the expert opinions fully taken into consideration. To address the subjectivity in the weight calculation process of risk assessment indicators, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Entropy Weight Method are used to calculate the subjective and objective weights, respectively. A combined weighting model is established based on game theory principles and is used to optimize the weights of the risk assessment indicators. In view of the fuzziness of risks during high-grade highway construction, fuzzy mathematics theory is introduced to construct the risk assessment model. In this study, this method is applied to the construction of the Elsiyah Highway to clarify the risk level of the project and propose targeted control measures. The results show that the risk level of the Elsiyah Highway project is relatively high. The risk level is conditionally acceptable, but measures must be taken to reduce the risks.

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Decades of engineering practice have substantiated that the implementation of construction joints is a pivotal method for mitigating dam cracking. The integration of various joint types, notably transverse and induced joints, within roller-compacted concrete (RCC) arch dams has emerged as a promising strategy to curtail cracking and structural failure. This approach leverages the unique structural characteristics inherent to each joint type. Given the intricate, variable, and dynamic nature of thermal stress in RCC arch dams, the design process for crack prevention, particularly the configuration of induced joints, demands an accurate representation of the dam's operational conditions from construction through to service. Investigations in practical engineering contexts have revealed that the utilization of a contact unit simulation methodology, featuring an open/close iterative function for modeling the behavior of induced and transverse joints in RCC arch dams, proves effective. This method is complemented by the adoption of equivalent strength theory as the criterion for structural integrity assessment. A comprehensive process simulation encompassing the entire dam structure further enhances the efficacy of this approach. Such simulations facilitate a more granular examination of joint placement within the dam and the structural design of the joints themselves. As a result, induced joints can be optimally opened in alignment with design expectations, thereby alleviating tensile stress triggered by temperature reductions. This strategy assures superior construction quality of the dam's concrete body, contributing significantly to the longevity and safety of RCC arch dams.
Open Access
Research article
Regression Model for the Mechanical Properties of PVC-P Geomembranes with Scratch Damage
xianlei zhang ,
jianqun liu ,
wenhui zhang ,
hesong liu
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Available online: 12-30-2023

Abstract

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In response to the mechanical performance alterations of PVC-P geomembranes due to improper handling or subgrade particle action during construction and operation, a series of axial tensile tests on PVC-P geomembranes with various scratch damages were conducted. Multifactorial variance analysis was performed using Python, and a multivariate regression model for the fracture strength and elongation at break of scratched PVC-P geomembranes was developed using SPSS. The precision of the regression model was evaluated using parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and root mean square error (RMSE). The results indicated that the fracture strength and elongation at break of PVC-P geomembranes are significantly affected by a combination of scratch angle, length, and depth. The impact on elongation at break is greater than on fracture strength, with the scratch angle having the most significant effect. The developed multivariate regression model yielded R2 values of 0.98 and 0.97 for fracture strength and elongation at break, respectively. The MAEs were 0.62 kN/m and 7.96%, and the MAPEs were 3.06% and 5.13%, respectively. The RMSEs were 0.84 kN/m and 12.08%. The high fitting accuracy of the model suggests its utility for evaluating the mechanical performance of PVC-P geomembranes with scratch damage.

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This study introduces a novel methodology for optimizing the design of small dams in the Western Desert of Iraq, a region characterized by its vast expanse and significant flood water influx, particularly in the Horan Valley. The approach integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with a custom-developed Visual Basic program, termed the Optimal Height and Location Model (OHALM), to determine the most effective dam height and location. The initial phase of the study involved utilizing GIS to identify potential dam sites in Horan Valley, based on a set of defined criteria. Subsequently, OHALM was employed to ascertain the optimal dam height, taking into account economic factors such as minimal evaporation losses and maximal water storage capacity. The study culminated in the selection of 13 proposed small dam sites, with height estimations ranging between 12.5 to 14 meters, allowing for a total water storage capacity of approximately 303 million cubic meters. This capacity expansion resulted in an increase of the valley's water body area from 15 square kilometers to 90 square kilometers. Comparative analysis of these proposed dam heights with those of existing structures in the valley revealed a relative variance of 10.4% in the upstream, 7.2% in the midstream, and a comparable percentage in the downstream areas. The research highlights the efficacy of integrating GIS and Visual Basic programming for the strategic development of water resource management systems, particularly in arid regions. This innovative approach demonstrates the potential for significant improvements in water storage and management, addressing the critical need for sustainable water resources in arid environments.

Open Access
Research article
Enhancing Stone Mastic Asphalt through the Integration of Waste Paper and Cement Kiln Dust
shireen sulaiman mohammed naser ,
mohsen seyedi ,
shakir al-busaltan
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Available online: 12-30-2023

Abstract

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In the realm of civil engineering and industrial construction, the infusion of waste materials into road pavements has emerged as a pivotal strategy for augmenting the attributes of asphalt mixtures while concurrently mitigating the environmental repercussions associated with waste. This investigation delineates a dry method for the preliminary treatment of waste paper, preceding its amalgamation into asphalt mixtures. The focal point is the incorporation of waste paper and Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) as modifiers in Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA). It is posited that the inclusion of waste paper fibers can substantially elevate the SMA's flexibility and crack resistance. Simultaneously, CKD is purported to bolster the asphalt's strength and durability through its cementitious characteristics. A series of SMA blends were formulated, integrating waste paper and CKD in varied proportions ranging from 0.2% to 1% by weight. Subsequent evaluations encompassed analyses of air voids, density, drain-down characteristics, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), and Marshall Stability. The outcomes revealed that the drain-down test exhibited enhancements in volumetric parameters, notably density and air voids. Concomitantly, there was a 33% increase in Marshall Stability and a 37% improvement in ITS. Additional advancements were observed in Marshall Flow, Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR), and skid resistance. In summation, this study establishes that waste paper, when appropriately treated and amalgamated with CKD, can be efficaciously utilized in SMA mixes, yielding mixtures with superior volumetric and mechanical properties. This methodology not only augments the stiffness and minimizes binder drainage but also enhances rutting resistance. Most crucially, it paves the way for sustainable and ethical practices in the reuse and recycling of waste materials.

Abstract

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In addressing the challenge of precise lateral attitude adjustment during high-altitude hoisting of non-standard steel structures, such as the rotating platforms in rocket launch towers, a novel approach involving an adjustable counterweight balance beam has been developed. This method entails the strategic placement of movable counterweight blocks on the balance beam, thereby enabling the manipulation of the gravity center's distribution for refined posture control of the load suspended beneath the beam. A theoretical model encompassing static balance and deformation coordination has been formulated for this adjustable balance beam system. Utilizing Matlab for computational analysis, the model elucidates the effects of various parameters, including the counterweight block position, block weight, lifted load, sling length, and balance beam length on the beam's attitude. The findings suggest that the beam's performance can be optimized in accordance with the weight of the load. Through the judicious design of the sling and beam lengths, as well as the counterweight block mass, continuous fine-tuning of the hoisting posture is achievable via progressive adjustments of the counterweight block's position on the balance beam. The theoretical calculations and analyses derived from this study offer valuable insights for the design of new balance beams and the enhancement of hoisting operations, catering to the specific demands of high-precision, high-altitude lifting tasks.

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In regions characterized by extreme cold and elevated altitudes, notably in the northwest, the mechanical characteristics of construction materials such as Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) are critically impacted by ambient temperatures. This study investigates the mechanical properties of UHPC subjected to low-temperature curing environments, conducting uni-axial compressive and splitting tensile strength tests on UHPC specimens, which comprise water, dry mix, and steel fibers. These specimens were cured at varied temperatures (-10℃, -5℃, 5℃, 10℃). Utilizing damage theory principles, the loss rate in compressive strength of UHPC post-curing was quantified as a damage indicator, revealing internal degradation. A predictive model for damage under low-temperature maintenance was developed, grounded in the two-parameter Weibull probability distribution and empirical damage models. Parameter estimation for this model was achieved through the least squares method, informed by experimental data. The findings indicate a rapid increase in UHPC’s mechanical strength at all curing temperatures, with 7-day strength achieving approximately 90% of its 28-day counterpart. A positive correlation was observed between the mechanical strength of UHPC, curing temperature, and age. Despite a reduction in mechanical strength due to low-temperature curing, UHPC was found to attain anticipated strength levels suitable for construction in cold environments. The proposed model for predicting UHPC damage under low-temperature conditions demonstrated efficacy in estimating the strength loss rate, thereby offering substantial technical support for UHPC’s application in northwest regions.

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