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Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences
Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG)
ISSN (print): 2958-1869
ISSN (online): 2958-1877
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2023: Vol. 2
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Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG) is dedicated to advancing scholarly inquiry into the history of the Earth, its prospective evolution, and interconnected scientific fields. Emphasizing the critical importance of geosciences in understanding our planet's past, present, and future, ATG endeavors to unravel the complexities and multifaceted nature of Earth's geological processes. As a peer-reviewed, open access journal, ATG is published quarterly by Acadlore, with its four issues typically released in March, June, September, and December each year.

  • Professional Service - Every article submitted undergoes an intensive yet swift peer review and editing process, adhering to the highest publication standards.

  • Prompt Publication - Thanks to our proficiency in orchestrating the peer-review, editing, and production processes, all accepted articles see rapid publication.

  • Open Access - Every published article is instantly accessible to a global readership, allowing for uninhibited sharing across various platforms at any time.

ana vulevic
Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia (IAUS), Serbia
Research interests: Urban Planning; Transportation Planning; Accessibility; Mobility; Environment Protection

Aims & Scope


Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG) emerges as a leading platform at the forefront of geosciences, offering open-access, high-visibility publishing for researchers worldwide. ATG is dedicated to fostering a global community of scientists and academics, united in their pursuit to explore, share, and expand the frontiers of geoscience knowledge. We embrace a wide array of original submissions including reviews, research papers, short communications, and Special Issues focused on specific topics. Our spectrum of research encompasses the entirety of geosciences, from hands-on fieldwork to sophisticated theoretical simulations.

ATG's mission is to encourage exhaustive dissemination of both theoretical and experimental findings in geosciences. The journal, therefore, imposes no restrictions on the length of papers, advocating for comprehensive detail to facilitate reproducibility. In addition, ATG highlights the following attributes:

  • Every publication benefits from prominent indexing, ensuring widespread recognition.

  • A distinguished editorial team upholds unparalleled quality and broad appeal.

  • Seamless online discoverability of each article maximizes its global reach.

  • An author-centric and transparent publication process enhances submission experience.


The scope of ATG is broad yet precise, covering a spectrum of geosciences disciplines including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental Science: A vital discipline that explores the interaction between natural systems and human activities, focusing on issues such as pollution, conservation, and sustainable management of natural resources.

  • Biogeochemistry: Interactions between the biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the Earth.

  • Petrology and Geochemistry: Both endogenous and exogenous studies.

  • Climate Science: Understanding past, present, and future climatic variations.

  • Crystallography and Mineralogy: The art and science of crystals and minerals.

  • Ecology: Interactions among organisms and their environment.

  • Energy and Mineral Deposits: Exploration of natural resources.

  • Geobiology: The intersection of geology and biology.

  • Geochemistry: Chemical composition and changes in the Earth.

  • Physical Geography and Geophysics: Earth's physical processes and properties.

  • Geodynamics, Tectonics, Seismology, and Volcanology: Earth's internal dynamics and surface expressions.

  • Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Layers of Earth's history.

  • Geographic Information Science, Geoinformatics, and Remote Sensing: Digital exploration of the Earth's surface.

  • Geological Engineering: Application of geosciences in engineering.

  • Geomagnetism, Paleomagnetism, Mineral Physics: Earth's magnetic properties and mineral behaviors.

  • Geomorphology: The study of landforms.

  • Atmospheric Science, Glaciology, Hydrology, Oceanography, and Limnology: Earth's water and atmospheric systems.

  • Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoceanography, Meteorites, Planetary Science: Historical climate and planetary studies.

Recent Articles
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Open Access
Research article
Potential Impacts of Zone-Specific Mining on Karst
márton veress ,
zoltán unger
Available online: 12-04-2023


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This investigation delineates the impacts of mining on karst systems, with a focus on specific karst zones, namely the epikarst, the vadose zone, and the phreatic zone, which includes the epiphreatic zone. Mining activities, regardless of the karst area type, predominantly affect these zones. When mining occurs at the surface or within the epikarst, it results in the destruction of surface features and the disruption of the epikarst, thereby locally halting karstification processes. The extraction in the vadose zone can lead to surface alterations, characterized by collapses, the formation of depressions, and the modification of epikarst activity, ultimately impacting surface karstification and inducing atectonic changes on the surface. The exploitation of the phreatic zone is associated with the artificial lowering of the karst water table and the removal of materials from cavities and depressions. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the zone-specific impacts of mining on karst systems, highlighting the need for tailored conservation and management strategies to mitigate these effects. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of karst dynamics and provide a foundation for future research on the sustainable management of karst environments in the context of mining activities.


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This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the carbon components in $\mathrm{PM}_{2.5}$ particulate matter in Linfen City for the year 2020. Utilizing the thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method, the mass concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in $\mathrm{PM}_{2.5}$ were quantitatively assessed. Findings revealed seasonal variations in the concentrations of $\mathrm{OC}$ and EC. Specifically, concentrations in spring were registered at $4.45 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for OC and $1.03 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for EC; in summer, these were $3.89 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ and $0.74 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$; in autumn, $6.01 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ and $1.30 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$; escalating significantly in winter to $16.76 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for OC and $4.24 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for EC. This seasonal trend highlighted a notable peak in winter, with OC concentrations being 4.31 times, and EC concentrations 5.73 times, those observed in summer. The correlation analysis between OC and EC demonstrated the highest correlation in winter $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.961\right)$, suggesting similar sources for these components in the colder months, followed by autumn $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.936\right)$ and spring $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.848\right)$, with the least correlation observed in summer $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.584\right)$. The EC tracer method, employed to estimate secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, indicated a seasonal pattern in SOC levels, with the highest concentrations occurring in winter, thereby suggesting a significant secondary pollution impact during this period. Moreover, the study identified meteorological conditions, particularly long-distance horizontal transport, as a primary influencer of winter pollution levels in Linfen City.


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The review provides a comprehensive overview of the application of membrane technology in addressing the challenges associated with water pollution and waste management. Membrane technology is a process used in various fields, primarily in filtration, separation, and purification applications. It involves the use of semi-permeable membranes to separate substances when a driving force is applied, such as pressure, concentration gradients, or electrical potential. The article highlights the role of membrane technology in sustainable remediation, focusing on its ability to remove contaminants from contaminated water sources. Various membrane-based processes, including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration, are discussed in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in achieving purified water and concentrated waste streams. It emphasizes the importance of recent trends in membrane technology for wastewater treatment, particularly in achieving high-quality effluent and meeting stringent regulatory standards. The integration of biological treatment with membrane filtration, as exemplified by membrane bioreactors (MBRs), is explored, along with their advantages in terms of biomass concentration, sludge reduction, and improved. The removal of suspended solids, pathogens, and micropollutants through membrane filtration is highlighted as a crucial aspect of wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the review article addresses the challenges and limitations associated with membrane technology, such as fouling, scaling, energy consumption, and membrane degradation. It discusses ongoing research efforts to develop sustainable membrane materials, advanced fouling control methods, and process optimization strategies to overcome these challenges. Overall, the review article provides valuable insights into the role of membrane technology in sustainable remediation and wastewater treatment, highlighting its potential for efficient water management, environmental protection, and resource recovery.


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Utilising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the morphological and phase composition characteristics of waste incineration fly ash were meticulously analysed. Morphological evaluations revealed a predominant presence of irregularly shaped particles, encountering a spectrum of structures inclusive of polycrystalline polymers and amorphous forms. Additional particle shapes encompassed polygons, strips, blocks, and flakes, while a notable high porosity between particles and a markedly rough surface were observed. Despite the scarcity of complete crystals within the ash, the majority manifested as polycrystalline polymers and amorphous forms, indicating the structural complexity intrinsic to waste incineration fly ash. Through the deployment of chemical continuous extraction technology, forms, migrations, and transformation laws pertaining to rare earth elements (REEs) in fly ash were elucidated. In three fly ash samples analysed for REEs, the most abundant state was identified as the residual, succeeded by the Fe-Mn oxide-bound state and minimally, the carbonate-bound state. Amongst all REEs, Ce exhibited the highest prevalence, followed by La, Y, Nd, Gd, and other elements. Furthermore, the source of waste and the respective incineration process markedly influenced REEs content.


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This research delineates a numerical elucidation concerning the flow through an embankment, utilising PLAXIS2D software, and underscores the pivotal influence of soil composition—encompassing gravel, sand, and clay—on the structural resilience of embankments during seismic events. Different material models, incorporating the UBC3D-PLM for sand and the Hardening Soil (HS) small constitutive models for gravel and clay, were strategically employed to replicate embankment behaviours, ensuring a meticulous simulation of distinct soil types. The objective herein was to scrutinise the impact of dynamic loads and soil typologies on pertinent variables: settlements, lateral displacements, and excess pore water pressure engendered within the embankment. A comprehensive series of 2D finite element models, each representative of a specific soil type, were formulated and subsequently subjected to an earthquake record for dynamic analysis. It was discerned that embankments constituted from sand and gravel exhibited a pronounced settlement under dynamic loads, relative to those formulated from clay, primarily attributable to the absence of cohesion forces, augmented porosity, and diminished energy dissipation efficacy. Such factors render sand and gravel more prone to compression and settlement upon exposure to dynamic loads. Moreover, embankments fabricated from sand were identified to generate superior pore pressures compared to their clay or gravel counterparts, a phenomenon attributable to sand’s compressibility which can engender augmented volumetric strains and initiate pumping phenomena, thereby elevating pore pressures. In contrast, gravel and clay materials demonstrated enhanced drainage capabilities and reduced compressibility, facilitating the proficient dissipation of excess pore pressures.

Open Access
Research article
Effects of Spacing-to-Burden Ratio and Joint Angle on Rock Fragmentation: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and AI Approach in Overburden Benches
dasyapu ramesh ,
nidumukkala sri chandrahas ,
musunuri sesha venkatramayya ,
malothu naresh ,
pradeep talari ,
dhangeti uma venkata durga prasad ,
kannavena sravan kumar ,
vasala vinod kumar
Available online: 09-27-2023


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In quarrying and mining operations, the results of the blasting process profoundly influence subsequent processes. Two primary categories dictate blast outcomes: controllable and non-controllable factors. For optimal fragmentation, it's pivotal that controllable variables, notably blast geometry and explosive attributes, are meticulously planned in correlation with non-controllable ones, such as geological aspects. In this study, the influence of blast design parameters on rock mass was investigated by examining the observable characteristics of joints and bedding planes on rock surfaces. Information extraction from these discontinuities was facilitated through cloud data processing. Within the scope of the research, 12 synchronized blasts were executed in the Basanth Nagar Limestone Mine (BNLM), tailored to its inherent joints. Results indicated that the spacing-to-burden ratio, powder factor, and joint angle significantly influenced the mean fragment size. An inverse relationship was observed between the spacing-to-burden ratio and the mean fragment size; optimal ratios for superior fragmentation were found between 1.25 and 1.3. Joint angles ranging between 75° and 80° were associated with optimal fragmentation, whereas angles exceeding 80° yielded larger rock boulders. Effective powder factors ranged from 0.36 to 0.47, with the necessity of the powder factor for rock fracturing being heavily dependent on the joint angle of the rock.


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In 2020, the world witnessed an unprecedented event: the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to significantly curtailed human activities. This study sought to elucidate the potential spatial ramifications of this on land surface temperatures (LSTs) in the renowned tourist locale of Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. Landsat 8 satellite imagery from 2019-2021, complemented by spatial data from local agencies, was employed for this analysis. LST processing was achieved through the calculation of Spectral Radiance/Top of Atmosphere, Brightness Temperature, and the conversion of Brightness Temperature to actual LST. In 2019, observed LSTs in Kuta District varied from 20.1℃ to over 32℃, with the predominant temperature range being 28.1℃ - 31.99℃, covering an expansive 1487.03 ha or 70.26% of the entire area. By 2020, a notable decline was discerned with temperatures peaking at 27.99 ℃ and the most prevalent temperature range being 24.1℃ - 27.99℃, encompassing an area of 1105.46 ha (52.23%). Contrarily, 2021 experienced an upswing, with the apex temperature touching 31.99℃, and the dominant temperature bracket being 28.1℃ - 31.99℃, spanning 974.90 ha (46.06%). A discernable correlation was identified between tourism activities and LST fluctuations, with temperature reductions conspicuous in zones endowed with tourism amenities.


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Safety of reservoir dams remains pivotal for societal stability, underscoring the significance of efficient emergency management strategies. This investigation focuses on Naban Reservoir, where the BREACH model was employed to simulate potential dam failures. By integrating one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling approaches, a mathematical representation was developed to scrutinize flood progression in the adjacent region. Correlation coefficients for the devised model ranged from 0.945 to 0.986, with relative errors of -13.72%, -0.23%, -17.41%, and -15.44%. Comparisons indicated that observed flow rates align closely with simulated rates. Notably, significant land slippages surrounding the reservoir were not detected, implying that an enhanced downstream surge due to an upstream collapse is unlikely. Nevertheless, a breach in the main dam could result in catastrophic outcomes for downstream zones, particularly affecting infrastructure and communities along the Shangsi and Zaimiao Basins. Critical observation zones, such as Siyang Town in Shangshi County, Zaimiao Town in Shangshi County, and Nakan Town in Ningming County, were identified, emphasizing the need for enhanced precautionary measures to safeguard human lives, property, and societal stability. This research has paved the way for a novel flood early warning system tailored for the Naban Reservoir, ensuring timely predictions and alerts. Such advancements augment the disaster prevention capacity, offering valuable insights for mitigating risks in small to medium-sized reservoirs.


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An investigation was conducted to determine potential threats of heavy metal contaminants in soil samples from Ado-Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria, across distinct land-use zones. Five soil specimens were systematically gathered from each of the following locales, representing heightened anthropogenic activities: marketplaces, motor parks, schools, mining sites, and residential regions. Using an atomic absorption spectrometer, the soil samples' chemical compositions were scrutinized with a focus on elements such as As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe. Indices, including the geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI), were employed for contamination assessment of metals in the soils. Furthermore, Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessments (HHRA), following the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines, were carried out to establish the probability of detrimental impacts of heavy metals in the soils on human and environmental health. Mean concentrations (mg/kg) across all zones for As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe were 1.16, 20.44, 2.18, 7.52, 2.18, 4.67, 18.57, 66.71, and 207.21 respectively, with the arsenic and cadmium concentrations exceeding permissible levels. A PLI value exceeding one suggested heavy metal-induced degradation in the studied area. Chromium presented notable environmental hazards, and the majority of detected metals were traced back to anthropogenic sources. Oral ingestion of soil metals resulted in hazard index (HI) values exceeding one for children across all zones, indicating their susceptibility to non-carcinogenic health risks. Consequently, vigilant monitoring of heavy metal levels is advocated to mitigate potential health hazards and ensure the health of the community.


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Emerging as an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound approach, electrochemical treatment methods hold significant promise for sustainable remediation and wastewater treatment. This review elucidates recent progress in electrochemical techniques used for site decontamination and wastewater management. It elucidates the fundamental electrochemical processes, detailing the principles of electrocoagulation, electroflocculation, electrochemical membranes, electrochemical oxidation (EO), and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The broad applicability of these methods for contaminant removal, inclusive of heavy metals, organic pollutants, complex organic compounds, and suspended particulate matter, is underscored. Notwithstanding, the adoption of these techniques encounters notable challenges. These involve the heterogeneity of soil conditions, the presence of intricate contaminant mixtures, and the risk of electrode fouling and degradation. Suggestions for overcoming such challenges include refining the comprehension of electrochemical treatment processes in field-scale applications, investigating innovative electrode materials, and developing advanced modeling and simulation tools. This review offers a robust overview of electrochemical treatment strategies for sustainable wastewater management and can guide researchers, engineers, and policymakers towards the successful adoption and implementation of these techniques to meet environmental challenges and foster sustainable water management.

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