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Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences
Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG)
ISSN (print): 2958-1869
ISSN (online): 2958-1877
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2023: Vol. 2

Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG) is dedicated to advancing scholarly inquiry into the history of the Earth, its prospective evolution, and interconnected scientific fields. Emphasizing the critical importance of geosciences in understanding our planet's past, present, and future, ATG endeavors to unravel the complexities and multifaceted nature of Earth's geological processes. As a peer-reviewed, open access journal, ATG is published quarterly by Acadlore, with its four issues typically released in March, June, September, and December each year.

  • Professional Service - Every article submitted undergoes an intensive yet swift peer review and editing process, adhering to the highest publication standards.

  • Prompt Publication - Thanks to our proficiency in orchestrating the peer-review, editing, and production processes, all accepted articles see rapid publication.

  • Open Access - Every published article is instantly accessible to a global readership, allowing for uninhibited sharing across various platforms at any time.

ana vulevic
Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia (IAUS), Serbia
Research interests: Urban Planning; Transportation Planning; Accessibility; Mobility; Environment Protection

Aims & Scope


Acadlore Transactions on Geosciences (ATG) emerges as a leading platform at the forefront of geosciences, offering open-access, high-visibility publishing for researchers worldwide. ATG is dedicated to fostering a global community of scientists and academics, united in their pursuit to explore, share, and expand the frontiers of geoscience knowledge. We embrace a wide array of original submissions including reviews, research papers, short communications, and Special Issues focused on specific topics. Our spectrum of research encompasses the entirety of geosciences, from hands-on fieldwork to sophisticated theoretical simulations.

ATG's mission is to encourage exhaustive dissemination of both theoretical and experimental findings in geosciences. The journal, therefore, imposes no restrictions on the length of papers, advocating for comprehensive detail to facilitate reproducibility. In addition, ATG highlights the following attributes:

  • Every publication benefits from prominent indexing, ensuring widespread recognition.

  • A distinguished editorial team upholds unparalleled quality and broad appeal.

  • Seamless online discoverability of each article maximizes its global reach.

  • An author-centric and transparent publication process enhances submission experience.


The scope of ATG is broad yet precise, covering a spectrum of geosciences disciplines including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental Science: A vital discipline that explores the interaction between natural systems and human activities, focusing on issues such as pollution, conservation, and sustainable management of natural resources.

  • Biogeochemistry: Interactions between the biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the Earth.

  • Petrology and Geochemistry: Both endogenous and exogenous studies.

  • Climate Science: Understanding past, present, and future climatic variations.

  • Crystallography and Mineralogy: The art and science of crystals and minerals.

  • Ecology: Interactions among organisms and their environment.

  • Energy and Mineral Deposits: Exploration of natural resources.

  • Geobiology: The intersection of geology and biology.

  • Geochemistry: Chemical composition and changes in the Earth.

  • Physical Geography and Geophysics: Earth's physical processes and properties.

  • Geodynamics, Tectonics, Seismology, and Volcanology: Earth's internal dynamics and surface expressions.

  • Stratigraphy and Sedimentology: Layers of Earth's history.

  • Geographic Information Science, Geoinformatics, and Remote Sensing: Digital exploration of the Earth's surface.

  • Geological Engineering: Application of geosciences in engineering.

  • Geomagnetism, Paleomagnetism, Mineral Physics: Earth's magnetic properties and mineral behaviors.

  • Geomorphology: The study of landforms.

  • Atmospheric Science, Glaciology, Hydrology, Oceanography, and Limnology: Earth's water and atmospheric systems.

  • Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoceanography, Meteorites, Planetary Science: Historical climate and planetary studies.

Recent Articles
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A geoelectrical imaging survey, employing resistivity and induced polarization (IP) methodologies, was executed on Dala Hill, Kano, Nigeria, positioned between latitudes 12.008611°N and 12.009722°N, and longitudes 8.505833°E and 8.507222°E. The objective was to assess and compare findings with prior ground magnetic studies to delineate subsurface geological structures. The survey utilized an ABEM Terrameter SAS 1000 for data acquisition along three distinct profiles encompassing the hill and adjacent areas, with electrode separations fixed at 10 meters. Data processing was conducted using RES2DINV software, revealing resistivity profiles that identified three stratified layers with resistivity values ranging from 300Ωm to 6798Ωm for the first layer, 128Ωm to 744Ωm for the second, and 4Ωm to 127Ωm for the third. IP profiles identified zones of varying chargeability, from -3.44 msec to 19.6 msec. Analysis indicated a consistent positive correlation between zones of high resistivity and low chargeability. For instance, a zone along Profile 1 demonstrated high resistivity values (2142Ωm - 6798Ωm) between 60m and 190m, coinciding with a low chargeability zone (0.506 msec to 2.43 msec) observed from 20m to 100m along the profile, equating to depths of 10m to 39.6m. Similar correlations were observed in the subsequent profiles, with significant intersections between high resistivity and low chargeability zones. These areas were interpreted as being rich in iron ore minerals, predominantly magnetite, based on the comparative analysis with standard values of rocks and minerals. The presence of magnetite, known for its high iron content and magnetic properties, underscores the area's potential for steel production. Moreover, the identification of a dyke within the study area corroborates findings from earlier magnetic studies, further validating the geophysical methodology's effectiveness in revealing the shallow subsurface structural settings. This alignment not only substantiates the layered configurations deduced from magnetic studies but also highlights the geoelectrical survey's capability in providing a comprehensive understanding of subsurface geology.

Open Access
Research article
Optimizing Borehole Diameter for Maximum Gas Extraction Efficiency in Coal Seams
junming zhang ,
lei tan ,
xuan zhang ,
hai wu ,
zhen hu ,
haohua chen
Available online: 03-10-2024


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In mines characterized by high gas concentrations, the process of extracting natural resources frequently precipitates coal and gas outbursts, positioning borehole gas extraction as a pivotal preventative strategy. Investigations aimed at identifying an optimal borehole diameter for gas extraction were undertaken within the Puxi Mine, entailing the drilling of boreholes across a spectrum of diameters and subsequent comparative analysis of the resultant data. This study meticulously evaluated the influence of seven distinct borehole diameters on gas concentration and pure flow rate, per unit length of coal hole and per unit of applied negative pressure. It was discerned that boreholes with larger diameters significantly enhance gas extraction efficacy. Specifically, boreholes of 113mm and 94mm diameters were noted for their exceptional performance, delivering pure flow rates of gas at 0.0215 m3/min and 0.0428 m3/min, respectively. Through a detailed examination of borehole diameters that presented considerable advantages, notably 113mm, 105mm, and 94mm, it was ascertained that the 94mm borehole diameter achieved the highest utilization efficiency, registering a gas pure flow rate of 1.62×10-4 m3/min per unit diameter. Consequently, this diameter was identified as the most advantageous for gas extraction purposes. The insights garnered from this investigation are instrumental for the selection of borehole diameters tailored to gas extraction in coal seams of varying thicknesses, and they significantly contribute to the formulation of rationalized gas extraction methodologies.

Open Access
Research article
Enhanced Oil Recovery Through Balanced Production Techniques in Horizontal Wells of Bohai A Oilfield
dedong xue ,
chunfeng zheng ,
zimo liu ,
jiayao peng ,
qiong shen
Available online: 02-02-2024


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In response to the prevalent high water cut challenge in horizontal wells of the Bohai A Oilfield, this study introduces an innovative approach for pinpointing water production points in horizontal wells. The methodology leverages a comprehensive evaluation that integrates techniques such as curve identification, dynamic analysis, numerical simulation, and seepage model calculations. In conjunction, a novel hydraulic control-based balanced oil production process has been developed. This process utilizes a specialized water plugging string to effectively seal water production points in horizontal wells. Additionally, a hydraulic control system for horizontal well oil production has been implemented, facilitating staged extraction and thus achieving balance in oil production. Field application, particularly in Well X1, demonstrates a marked improvement post-implementation: the comprehensive water cut in Well X1 decreased from an initial 98.1% to 87.3%, and the production pressure differential escalated from 0.55 MPa to 2.01 MPa. This substantial enhancement in reservoir utilization indicates a notable reduction in water cut within the crude oil. The application of this balanced production technology in horizontal wells has led to a decrease in water cut and liquid production, significantly alleviating surface processing pressures. Consequently, there has been an improvement in well productivity and the overall development effectiveness of the oilfield. These findings suggest that the balanced oil production technique offers a promising solution for enhancing oil recovery in horizontal wells, particularly in fields grappling with high water cuts.


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Meteorological parameter modeling is imperative for predicting future atmospheric conditions. This study focuses on the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, a region characterized by its climatic diversity and unique weather patterns, making it an ideal subject for meteorological research. The objective was to model meteorological parameters using trigonometric and polynomial functions, assessing their predictive accuracy in selected West African stations. The parameters considered include air temperature, air pressure, wind speed, rainfall, and relative humidity, with data sourced from the HelioClim satellite archive, spanning 1980 to 2022. The data, recorded in comma-separated value (CSV) format, were analyzed using descriptive statistics, specifically mean and standard deviation. Each meteorological parameter underwent modeling through both polynomial and trigonometric functions. The comparative effectiveness of these models was evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The preference for the adjusted coefficient of determination over the standard coefficient of determination (R2) was due to its ability to account for biases arising from variances in the number of parameters in both model types. The results indicated that both trigonometric and polynomial models are robust in their predictive capabilities, demonstrating their utility in accurate parameter estimation and future weather prediction. These findings suggest that such models are valuable tools in climate studies, enhancing understanding and awareness of weather conditions in the Sub-Saharan West African region.


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In the realm of civil engineering and structural analysis, the seismic resilience of infrastructure remains a critical area of research. This study delineates the seismic response assessment of a reinforced concrete bridge situated in Sibu, Sarawak, through the lens of finite element analysis (FEA). Embracing the robust capabilities of FEA, a comprehensive model of the reinforced concrete bridge is developed, enabling the simulation of its response to seismic forces. Notably, the seismic loading conditions are derived from the Chi-Chi earthquake time history data, a choice informed by the earthquake's significance in seismic research and the richness of its data, rather than its direct seismic comparability to Sarawak. The FEA, conducted using the Abaqus/CAE 6.14 software, meticulously models the bridge, incorporating varying peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of 0.10g, 0.20g, 0.50g, and 1.00g. Key structural response parameters, including maximum principal stress, acceleration, and displacement, are systematically extracted and analyzed. This meticulous approach uncovers the material resilience of the bridge, even under extreme seismic forces exemplified by a PGA of 1.00g. The integrative analysis, encompassing both static pushover and dynamic time history analyses, elucidates the structural integrity and performance of the reinforced concrete bridge in the face of seismic challenges. The findings not only contribute to the understanding of seismic impacts on reinforced concrete bridges but also pave the way for enhancing seismic design and resilience strategies in structural engineering.
Open Access
Research article
Inverse Analysis of Rock Mass Dynamic Parameters from Blasting Vibration Signals
yiran yan ,
aobo liu ,
junpeng gai ,
zhenyang xu
Available online: 12-24-2023


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The precision of determining rock mass mechanical parameters is notably impacted by mining blast activities. An advanced method for inverse analysis of these parameters, predicated upon measured blasting vibrations, has been developed. This approach employs a meticulous recognition of initial P-wave and S-wave arrivals within the vibrational energy spectrum. Utilizing principles from elastic wave theory, a novel framework has been established, correlating P-wave and S-wave velocities with dynamic characteristics of rock masses. The efficacy of this method has been substantiated through practical implementation, particularly in the Guanbaoshan Open-pit Iron Mine, Liaoning Province. Here, the derived density ratios were observed to range between 0.98 and 1.01, aligning closely with figures provided by authoritative research institutes. Additionally, the dynamic-to-static Poisson's ratio exhibited variations from 0.85 to 1.03, while the modulus of elasticity ratio dynamically to statically spanned from 2.0 to 2.6. These results, falling within anticipated theoretical ranges, underscore the robust applicability and accuracy of this method. The research contributes significantly to the domain of mining operations, particularly in optimizing blasting processes and enhancing the precision of mechanical parameter acquisition. It presents a pioneering approach, essential for addressing similar challenges in the mining sector.

Open Access
Research article
Potential Impacts of Zone-Specific Mining on Karst
márton veress ,
zoltán unger
Available online: 12-04-2023


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This investigation delineates the impacts of mining on karst systems, with a focus on specific karst zones, namely the epikarst, the vadose zone, and the phreatic zone, which includes the epiphreatic zone. Mining activities, regardless of the karst area type, predominantly affect these zones. When mining occurs at the surface or within the epikarst, it results in the destruction of surface features and the disruption of the epikarst, thereby locally halting karstification processes. The extraction in the vadose zone can lead to surface alterations, characterized by collapses, the formation of depressions, and the modification of epikarst activity, ultimately impacting surface karstification and inducing atectonic changes on the surface. The exploitation of the phreatic zone is associated with the artificial lowering of the karst water table and the removal of materials from cavities and depressions. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the zone-specific impacts of mining on karst systems, highlighting the need for tailored conservation and management strategies to mitigate these effects. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of karst dynamics and provide a foundation for future research on the sustainable management of karst environments in the context of mining activities.


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The review provides a comprehensive overview of the application of membrane technology in addressing the challenges associated with water pollution and waste management. Membrane technology is a process used in various fields, primarily in filtration, separation, and purification applications. It involves the use of semi-permeable membranes to separate substances when a driving force is applied, such as pressure, concentration gradients, or electrical potential. The article highlights the role of membrane technology in sustainable remediation, focusing on its ability to remove contaminants from contaminated water sources. Various membrane-based processes, including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration, are discussed in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in achieving purified water and concentrated waste streams. It emphasizes the importance of recent trends in membrane technology for wastewater treatment, particularly in achieving high-quality effluent and meeting stringent regulatory standards. The integration of biological treatment with membrane filtration, as exemplified by membrane bioreactors (MBRs), is explored, along with their advantages in terms of biomass concentration, sludge reduction, and improved. The removal of suspended solids, pathogens, and micropollutants through membrane filtration is highlighted as a crucial aspect of wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the review article addresses the challenges and limitations associated with membrane technology, such as fouling, scaling, energy consumption, and membrane degradation. It discusses ongoing research efforts to develop sustainable membrane materials, advanced fouling control methods, and process optimization strategies to overcome these challenges. Overall, the review article provides valuable insights into the role of membrane technology in sustainable remediation and wastewater treatment, highlighting its potential for efficient water management, environmental protection, and resource recovery.


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This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the carbon components in $\mathrm{PM}_{2.5}$ particulate matter in Linfen City for the year 2020. Utilizing the thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method, the mass concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in $\mathrm{PM}_{2.5}$ were quantitatively assessed. Findings revealed seasonal variations in the concentrations of $\mathrm{OC}$ and EC. Specifically, concentrations in spring were registered at $4.45 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for OC and $1.03 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for EC; in summer, these were $3.89 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ and $0.74 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$; in autumn, $6.01 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ and $1.30 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$; escalating significantly in winter to $16.76 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for OC and $4.24 \mu \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{m}^3$ for EC. This seasonal trend highlighted a notable peak in winter, with OC concentrations being 4.31 times, and EC concentrations 5.73 times, those observed in summer. The correlation analysis between OC and EC demonstrated the highest correlation in winter $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.961\right)$, suggesting similar sources for these components in the colder months, followed by autumn $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.936\right)$ and spring $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.848\right)$, with the least correlation observed in summer $\left(\mathrm{R}^2=0.584\right)$. The EC tracer method, employed to estimate secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, indicated a seasonal pattern in SOC levels, with the highest concentrations occurring in winter, thereby suggesting a significant secondary pollution impact during this period. Moreover, the study identified meteorological conditions, particularly long-distance horizontal transport, as a primary influencer of winter pollution levels in Linfen City.


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This research delineates a numerical elucidation concerning the flow through an embankment, utilising PLAXIS2D software, and underscores the pivotal influence of soil composition—encompassing gravel, sand, and clay—on the structural resilience of embankments during seismic events. Different material models, incorporating the UBC3D-PLM for sand and the Hardening Soil (HS) small constitutive models for gravel and clay, were strategically employed to replicate embankment behaviours, ensuring a meticulous simulation of distinct soil types. The objective herein was to scrutinise the impact of dynamic loads and soil typologies on pertinent variables: settlements, lateral displacements, and excess pore water pressure engendered within the embankment. A comprehensive series of 2D finite element models, each representative of a specific soil type, were formulated and subsequently subjected to an earthquake record for dynamic analysis. It was discerned that embankments constituted from sand and gravel exhibited a pronounced settlement under dynamic loads, relative to those formulated from clay, primarily attributable to the absence of cohesion forces, augmented porosity, and diminished energy dissipation efficacy. Such factors render sand and gravel more prone to compression and settlement upon exposure to dynamic loads. Moreover, embankments fabricated from sand were identified to generate superior pore pressures compared to their clay or gravel counterparts, a phenomenon attributable to sand’s compressibility which can engender augmented volumetric strains and initiate pumping phenomena, thereby elevating pore pressures. In contrast, gravel and clay materials demonstrated enhanced drainage capabilities and reduced compressibility, facilitating the proficient dissipation of excess pore pressures.


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Utilising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the morphological and phase composition characteristics of waste incineration fly ash were meticulously analysed. Morphological evaluations revealed a predominant presence of irregularly shaped particles, encountering a spectrum of structures inclusive of polycrystalline polymers and amorphous forms. Additional particle shapes encompassed polygons, strips, blocks, and flakes, while a notable high porosity between particles and a markedly rough surface were observed. Despite the scarcity of complete crystals within the ash, the majority manifested as polycrystalline polymers and amorphous forms, indicating the structural complexity intrinsic to waste incineration fly ash. Through the deployment of chemical continuous extraction technology, forms, migrations, and transformation laws pertaining to rare earth elements (REEs) in fly ash were elucidated. In three fly ash samples analysed for REEs, the most abundant state was identified as the residual, succeeded by the Fe-Mn oxide-bound state and minimally, the carbonate-bound state. Amongst all REEs, Ce exhibited the highest prevalence, followed by La, Y, Nd, Gd, and other elements. Furthermore, the source of waste and the respective incineration process markedly influenced REEs content.

Open Access
Research article
Effects of Spacing-to-Burden Ratio and Joint Angle on Rock Fragmentation: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and AI Approach in Overburden Benches
dasyapu ramesh ,
nidumukkala sri chandrahas ,
musunuri sesha venkatramayya ,
malothu naresh ,
pradeep talari ,
dhangeti uma venkata durga prasad ,
kannavena sravan kumar ,
vasala vinod kumar
Available online: 09-27-2023


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In quarrying and mining operations, the results of the blasting process profoundly influence subsequent processes. Two primary categories dictate blast outcomes: controllable and non-controllable factors. For optimal fragmentation, it's pivotal that controllable variables, notably blast geometry and explosive attributes, are meticulously planned in correlation with non-controllable ones, such as geological aspects. In this study, the influence of blast design parameters on rock mass was investigated by examining the observable characteristics of joints and bedding planes on rock surfaces. Information extraction from these discontinuities was facilitated through cloud data processing. Within the scope of the research, 12 synchronized blasts were executed in the Basanth Nagar Limestone Mine (BNLM), tailored to its inherent joints. Results indicated that the spacing-to-burden ratio, powder factor, and joint angle significantly influenced the mean fragment size. An inverse relationship was observed between the spacing-to-burden ratio and the mean fragment size; optimal ratios for superior fragmentation were found between 1.25 and 1.3. Joint angles ranging between 75° and 80° were associated with optimal fragmentation, whereas angles exceeding 80° yielded larger rock boulders. Effective powder factors ranged from 0.36 to 0.47, with the necessity of the powder factor for rock fracturing being heavily dependent on the joint angle of the rock.
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