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Volume 3, Issue 2, 2024
Open Access
Research article
Design and Economic Analysis of a Solar-Powered Charging Station for Personal Electric Vehicles in Indonesia
singgih d. prasetyo ,
alvyan n. rizandy ,
anom r. birawa ,
farrel j. regannanta ,
zainal arifin ,
mochamad s. mauludin ,
sukarman
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Available online: 05-23-2024

Abstract

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Indonesia, known for its abundant renewable resources, especially solar energy, presents a substantial potential for developing solar-powered solutions to meet its increasing electricity demands. This study explores the feasibility of a Solar Power Plant (PLTS) as the energy source for a personal Electric Vehicle Charging Station (SPKL), facilitating the transition from fuel-based to electric vehicles. Using a simulation-based approach, a hypothetical daily electricity load of 12,711 kW was considered. The simulations indicate that an On-Grid PLTS is the most economically viable option, offering significant investment returns. The annual energy output of the PLTS was calculated to be 30,767 kWh. Financial projections suggest a substantial profit by the 25th year, amounting to IDR 374,450,204.39. This research underscores the strategic importance of integrating hybrid technologies in developing renewable energy infrastructures, particularly in regions like Indonesia, where solar irradiance is high. The findings advocate for broader implementation of such systems aligned with national energy sustainability and economic efficiency goals.

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In the quest to secure energy supply and mitigate dependence on imported fossil fuels, nations are diversifying into renewable energy sources (RES). This study investigates the impact of renewable electricity production on economic growth, alongside the interplay with research and development (R&D) expenditures, through a comparative lens focusing on Norway and Brazil—both pioneers in the renewable energy arena. Analysis incorporates per capita R&D expenditures to gauge the nexus between renewable energy initiatives and R&D investment, employing data spanning from 2003 to 2014. The investigation reveals a notable divergence between the two nations. In Norway, no significant link was identified between the volume of renewable energy produced and per capita R&D expenditures. Nonetheless, a causal connection between economic growth and R&D investment was observed, with a robust correlation suggesting a profound influence of economic expansion on R&D activities. Contrarily, Brazil's scenario delineates a unidirectional causal relationship where economic growth positively influences the renewable energy sector, with no discernible association between R&D expenditures per capita and economic growth. These findings underscore the variegated impacts of renewable energy policies and R&D investments on economic dynamics within the context of Norway and Brazil, highlighting the necessity for tailored approaches in leveraging renewable energy for sustainable development.

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This investigation addresses the critical challenge of devising robust and sustainable energy infrastructures by integrating renewable energy sources in Makkovik, Newfoundland, and Labrador. A hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) comprising wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, battery storage, and backup diesel generators was evaluated for its viability and efficiency. With the help of the HOMER Pro software, extensive modeling and optimization were conducted, aimed at reducing dependency on fossil fuels, cutting carbon emissions, and enhancing economic benefits via decreased operational costs. The results indicated that the energy demands of Makkovik could predominantly be met by the proposed system, utilizing renewable resources. Significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions were observed, alongside improved cost-efficiency throughout the system's projected lifespan. Such outcomes demonstrate the system’s capability to provide an environmentally friendly and technically viable solution, marking a substantial step towards energy resilience and sustainability for isolated communities. The integration of diverse renewable energy sources underlines the potential for substantial emission reductions and operational cost savings, highlighting the importance of innovative energy solutions in enhancing the sustainability and resilience of remote areas. This study contributes vital insights into optimizing energy systems for economic and environmental benefits, advancing the discourse on renewable energy utilization in isolated regions.

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In the realm of heat transfer, the phenomenon of boiling heat transfer is paramount, especially given its efficiency in harnessing the latent heat of vaporization for significant thermal energy removal with minimal temperature alterations. This mechanism is integral to various industrial applications, including but not limited to the cooling systems of nuclear reactors, macro- and micro-electronic devices, evaporators in refrigeration systems, and boiler tubes within power plants, where the nucleate pool boiling regime and two-phase flow are prevalent. The imperative to optimize heat exchange systems by mitigating excessive heat dissipation, whilst simultaneously achieving downsizing, has consistently been a critical consideration. This research uses computational, based on Fluent software, to analyze thermal characteristics and cooling mechanisms of different concentrations of nanofluids, in conjunction with surfaces adorned with diverse fin geometries. Specifically, the study scrutinizes the thermal performance of water-based nanofluids, incorporating Copper (II) Oxide (CuO) nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 0% to 1.4% by volume, under boiling conditions. The analyses extend to the efficacy of different fin shapes—including circular, triangular, and square configurations-within a two-dimensional geometry, under the conditions of forced convection heat transfer in both steady and transient, viscous, incompressible flows. The findings are poised to contribute to the design of more efficient heat exchange systems, facilitating enhanced heat dissipation through the strategic use of nanofluids and meticulously designed surface geometries.

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