1. Before you begin
Acadlore fully adheres to the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Our editors have zero tolerance for publication ethics issues, such as plagiarism, data falsification, and inappropriate authorship credit, to name but a few. Authors wishing to publish articles in our journals are expected to comply with the best practices of ethical publication:
a) Submit the same manuscript to one journal only.
b) Disclose any fact that may lead to a conflict of interest in the manuscript.
c) Present the research findings accurately, and highlight their significance objectively.
d) Provide enough details on the data and methods, allowing others to replicate and build on published results.
e) Deposit raw data publicly before submission, or at least present the raw data to the reviewers and editor.
f) Ensure the originality of your manuscript and avoid plagiarism:
- Acadlore does not tolerate any form of plagiarism. Others’ work and/or words cannot be used without explicit citation or quotation. Any text, image, data, or idea borrowed from others’ work or even your previous work must be credited to the original source. We reserve the right to screen for unoriginal material through appropriate plagiarism checking tools, e.g., CrossRef and iThenticate. If plagiarism is detected during the peer review, the manuscript will be rejected; if plagiarism is detected after publication, we will launch an investigation and may retract the publication.
g) Do not manipulate images in any way that causes misinterpretation of the information in the original image:
- Do not add, enhance, or remove features from the original image; Do not enhance or obscure some information of the original image by modifying the contrast, brightness, or color balance.
Please refer to Acadlore publication ethics for more details.
The authorship of a manuscript belongs to the authors have contributed substantially to the following:
a) The conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
b) The drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
c) The final approval of the version to be submitted.
d) The agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
-Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments, e.g., anyone who provided research or writing assistance.
Authors must consider authorship carefully before manuscript submission. Any change to the author list should be made during the editorial process, before manuscript acceptance, and be approved by all authors, including any who have been removed from the list. The corresponding author should act as a point of contact between the journal editor and the other authors, and send to the journal editor the requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names.
Acadlore does not support any changes to authorship, i.e., the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts, once the article is published.
Please refer to Acadlore publication ethics for more details about authorship.
The authors retain the copyright of their articles published in Acadlore journals. These articles are available for free download and can be reused and cited, provided that the original published version is properly credited, under the open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license. If this license is not applicable to your situation, please inform the journal's editorial office. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the publisher.
If any material in your manuscript is taken from another source, including your own published article, please cite the source clearly, and obtain the appropriate permission.
a) Do not cite your own work excessively.
b) Do not cite advertisements or advertorial material.
c) Do not copy references from other articles without reading the cited work.
d) Put the original wording taken directly from others’ publications in quotation marks, with proper citations.
You may publish a high-quality article that you have published previously in another language, provided that:
a) Obtain permissions from the publisher and copyright holders.
b) Upload these permissions in the additional materials section during the submission.
c) Inform the journal editor about the publishing history of the original article.
d) Mention the original article in the Acknowledgements:
-This work is a translation of Article Title originally published in Language Name by Journal Name (Year, Volume Number, Page Numbers), with permissions granted by Publisher Name and Copyright Holder.
Reproducing copyrighted work
Permission should be sought from the rights holder to reproduce any substantial part of a copyrighted work. Unless explicated stated otherwise, the rightsholder of published material is the publisher (please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyright holder). Copyrighted material can include figures, tables, photos, and text excerpts. Acadlore cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
Permission is required for:
a) Your own works published elsewhere and for which you did not retain copyright.
b) Unaltered or slightly modified images, tables, and artworks.
c) Photos for which you do not hold copyright.
-Please acknowledge the source(s) in the form of “Reproduction permitted by Author Name of Book / Journal Title published by Publisher in Year” at the end of the figure, table, or artwork.
Permission is not required for:
a) Your own figures and tables published by other publishers. Please cite the data source in the form of “Adapted from…”
b) Images, tables, and artworks completely redrawn or significantly changed. Please cite the data source in the form of “Adapted from…” Please cite the data source in the form of “Adapted from…”
c) Reasonably short quotes.
Conflicts of interest
It is mandatory for all authors to disclose any relationship or interest that may bias their work. The typical conflicts of interest include financial interests like membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, and grants, and non-financial interests like personal connections, professional relationships, and affiliations. Please declare conflicts of interest as follows:
A (author name) serves as a consultant to X (entity name); B (author name) is a member of Y (entity name); C (author name) is a paid expert of Z (entity name).
If there are no conflicts of interest, please state:
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Acadlore is strongly against any discrimination based on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, religion, or socioeconomic status. The authors are expected to write in inclusive language, which acknowledges diversity, and conveys respect to all people. Do not contain anything in your manuscript that may imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, gender, culture, or any other characteristic.
Borders and territories
Acadlore stays neutral regarding jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. If your manuscript involves any potential dispute over borders and territories, our editorial team will attempt to find a resolution that satisfies parties involved.
Please write your article in good English (American or British usage). If you are not a native English speaker, you are encouraged to have your manuscript professionally edited before submission or read by a native English-speaking colleague. Acadlore can provide English polishing service to facilitate the peer review, and improve the readability of your manuscript. Please refer to Language Service for details on the pricing of the service.
The submission of your manuscript means the work described has not been published previously, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere; the publication of the work described has been approved by all authors, and the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; once accepted, the work will not be published elsewhere in any form in any language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Please submit with the manuscript, the names and emails of three potential reviewers with the appropriate expertise to review the manuscript. The suggested reviewers should not be collaborators of the co-authors. You may suggest reviewers from among the authors that you frequently cite in your paper. The journal editor retains the sole right to decide whether to use the suggested reviewers.
During the submission, you are required to add a concise cover letter with the article. The cover letter should preferably provide the following information:
a) The significance of the research contents.
b) The findings placed in the context of previous works.
c) The fitness of the article to the journal.
d) Any prior submission to Acadlore journals (with the ID of the previous article in our own manuscript processing system).
e) A statement that “We confirm that the manuscript is not under consideration or published in another journal”.
f) A statement that “All authors have approved the manuscript, and agree with its submission to Journal Name.”
During the submission, you are encouraged to add a biography of all authors of the article. The biography of each author should be a single paragraph providing the following information:
a) Author name and title.
b) Degree received, year of graduation, and institution information.
c) Work experience.
d) Research directions.
e) Memberships of professional societies and awards received.
a) Preliminary assessment
Once submitted, the article is received by a professional managing editor, who will decide whether the article meets the publication ethics, fits the scope of the journal, and is scientifically sound. The decision will be made in consultation with experts in relevant fields. If the article is deemed as suitable, it will be sent for peer review. Otherwise, it will be rejected, or returned to the authors for revision and resubmission.
b) Peer review
Once the article passes the initial assessment, it will be peer reviewed by at least two independent reviewers selected by our academic editor, with the help from a dedicated in-house assistant editor. The reviewers are preferably experts in the relevant fields. Potential reviewers suggested by the authors may also be considered. The reviewers must be independent from the authors and their institutions, qualified for evaluating the technical aspects of the article, and available to evaluate the article within the required period. The peer review will be double blind, where the authors and reviewers do not know the identities of each other.
c) Review decisions
Every article published in Acadlore journals go through a peer review by at least two reviewers. Review decisions are made by the academic editor, according to the reviewer comments on each article. The dedicated in-house assistant editor will communicate, via our own manuscript processing system, the review decision on your submission, which will be one of the following:
The article is accepted without any further revision. The chance of direct acceptance is extremely rare.
- Accept after minor revision:
The article will be accepted for publication in principle, after it is properly revised according to the reviewer comments. The revised article will not be sent to the reviewers again. The dedicated in-house editor will check if the revision is satisfactory, and the revised article meets the formal requirements. Five days are given for minor revisions.
- Accept after major revision:
The article will have a good opportunity of being accepted for publication, after it is significantly modified according to the reviewer comments. The authors need to respond to the comments point by point, or provide a clear response if they disagree with some comments. Normally, only one round of major revision is allowed. The revised article will be sent to the reviewers for another round of review. The major revisions should be completed within a suitable period.
The article is rejected due to the technical objections raised by the reviewers, e.g., the lack of contribution of the research contents. The rejection is final and cannot be reversed.
Once accepted, the article will be copy-edited by our subeditors to maximize its clarity and enhance its value. The copy-edited version will undergo author proofreading, final corrections, and publication on the www.acadlore.com website.
To expedite copy-editing and publication, authors are encouraged to use the LaTeX template or MS Word template of this journal to prepare their manuscript. The text should be in single-column format. To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your word processor. Please insert the figures into the main text close to their first citation. The manuscripts prepared in MS Word must be converted into a single file before submission. Please note that using the LaTeX template may require more time for learning and configuration, but it can provide higher quality typesetting and better support for mathematical formulas. While we recommend using the LaTeX template, it is not mandatory and authors may also use the MS Word template for their convenience. Please be aware that during the production stage, our in-house editors will be performing LaTeX typesetting for the final version of the article.
Graphical abstract is a single image designed to help the reader to quickly gain an overview of the article, and ascertain the purpose and results of the work. It could either be the concluding figure from the article, or better still a figure that is specially designed for the purpose in an attention-grabbing way. Note that the graphical abstract must be original and unpublished, without any postage stamps, currency, or trademarked items.
a) The graphical abstract should be sufficiently clear with the width to height ratio of 2:1. The size of the graphical abstract should not exceed 500K.
b) The texts in the graphical abstract should be clear and easy to read, using Times, Arial, or Courier font with a large enough font size.
c) No additional text, outline or synopsis should be included. Any text or label must be part of the image file.
The title should be concise, specific, and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems, Avoid acronyms, abbreviations, punctuation, or formulae.
The forename and surname of each author must be provided. The initials of any middle names can be added. Complete address information including zip code, city, state/province, and country. Designate one author as the corresponding author, who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication, and put his/her email, preferably institutional email, at the end of the affiliation section. One corresponding author is preferred for each manuscript; No more than two corresponding authors are allowed. Please also provide the ORCID of each author.
The Abstract should be a single paragraph of up to 300 words, which does not have references, and does not contain any non-essential abbreviations or acronyms. We encourage authors to follow the style of structured abstracts, but without headings:
(1) Purpose: Place the research question in a broad context, and highlight the research purpose;
(2) Methodology: Describe the main methods applied in the article briefly;
(3) Results: Sum up the main results of the article;
(4) Conclusions: Present the main conclusions or interpretations of the results;
(5) Implications: Briefly explain how the findings contribute to the research question. Do not include results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text or exaggerate the main conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article. It must be able to stand alone.
List five to eight common keywords in the subject discipline, which are specific to the article. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
The Introduction section should place the study briefly in a broad context, and clearly define its purpose and importance, including the specific hypotheses being tested. Plus, the current state of the research field should be reviewed carefully, and supported by relevant publications. In addition, the main aim, methodology, and conclusions of the work should be summed up in a concise thesis statement. This section should be written in language that will be comprehensible to readers working outside the topic.
The Methodology section should be written concisely, yet provide enough details to allow others to replicate and build on published results. The well-established methods can be introduced briefly with proper citations. Do not describe these published methods in details. In contrast, detailed descriptions are required for new methods.
The Results section should describe the results concisely and precisely, provide their interpretation, and draw possible conclusions from the results.
The Discussion section should interpret the results in perspective of previous studies and the working hypotheses, and report the research findings and implications in the broadest context possible. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The Conclusions section should clarify the main conclusions of the research, highlighting its significance and relevance. The limitations of the work and the directions of future research may also be mentioned. Please contain nothing not substantiated in the main text. Do not make this section a mere repetition of the Abstract.
Each author is expected contribute significantly to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work; or have drafted the work or substantively revised it; and has approved the submitted version (and version substantially edited by journal staff that involves the author’s contribution to the study); and agrees to be personally accountable for the author’s own contributions and for ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and documented in the literature. If your research article has several authors (i.e., those who have contributed substantially to the work), you are recommended, but not required, to list the contributions of each author in the following statement: “Conceptualization, X.X. and Y.Y.; methodology, X.X.; software, X.X.; validation, X.X., Y.Y. and Z.Z.; formal analysis, X.X.; investigation, X.X.; resources, X.X.; data curation, X.X.; writing—original draft preparation, X.X.; writing—review and editing, X.X.; visualization, X.X.; supervision, X.X.; project administration, X.X.; funding acquisition, Y.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.” The relevant terms are explained at the CRediT taxonomy.
Authors must state how the research and publication of their article was funded, by naming each funder followed by the associated grant number in round brackets. All funding sources of the study should be listed in this standard way: “This work is funded by name of funder (Grant number: XXX).” Do not include details on the program or type of grants and awards. Please use the standard spelling of funding agency names at https://search.crossref.org/funding.
Informed consent statement
If your research involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, you must obtain a written informed consent for publication from the participants before submitting to an Acadlore journal. In this case, you should add the following statement “Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.”
This section intends to clarify the sources of the data supporting the research results. If no data is reported in the work, please state “Not applicable” here. Otherwise, you can simply state “The data used to support the research findings are available from the corresponding author upon request” or follow template examples of a data availability statement:
- The data [data type] supporting our research results are deposited in [repository name] at [DOI or other persistent identifier], [reference number].
- The data [data type] supporting our research results are deposited in [repository name], which does not issue DOIs. The data can be accessed at [link/accession number].
- The data [data type] supporting our research results are included within the article or supplementary material.
- The data [data type] supporting our research results are under privacy or ethical restrictions. The data are available from [name, contact] for researchers, who meet the criteria for accessing confidential data.
- The data [data type] supporting our research results are supplied by [name] under license. Please request [name, contact] for accessing the data.
- The data [data type] supporting our research results may be released upon application to [name of data access committee or name of institutional review board] via [contact].
Anyone who contributed to the research or manuscript, but not a listed author, should be acknowledged. This may include technical support, material donation, etc. Do not repeat the support already covered by Author Contributions or Funding. Do not include thanks to anonymous reviewers and editors, inessential words, or effusive comments.
Conflict of interest
Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of the research results. This section must declare any role of the funders in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results. State “The authors declare no conflict of interest” or declare conflicts of interest in the following form:
A (author name) serves as a consultant to organization X (entity name); B (author name) is a paid expert of institute Y (entity name); C received a research grant from enterprise Z (entity name).
Following the IEEE style, references must be numbered in the order of appearance in the text (including citations in figures and tables) and listed individually at the end of the manuscript.
Only one publication can be listed for each number. All authors should be included in reference lists. The DOI should be attached to the end of a reference if the reference has one indeed. You may find DOI at http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/#.
Create a hanging indent for each reference with the bracketed numbers flush with the left side of the page. The hanging indent highlights the numerical sequence of your references. The author's name is listed as first initial, last name. Example: Adel Al Muhairy would be cited as A. Al Muhairy, rather than Al Muhairy, Adel. The title of an article is listed in quotation marks. The title of a journal or book is listed in italics.
It is not necessary to mention an author's name, pages used, or date of publication in the in-text citation. Instead, refer to the source with a number in a square bracket, e.g. , that will then correspond to the full citation in your reference list.
Here are the references to journal articles:
G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, “TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 695-701, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1109/12.600827.
S. M. Ali and S. Sinha, “Three-phase step-up DC-DC converter with a three-phase high-frequency transformer,” Global J. of Engg. & Appl. Sciences, vol. 2, Article ID: 19875, 2012.
Here are the references to books:
G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, J. Peters (Ed.), New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, vol. 3, pp. 15-64, 1964.
W. K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA, USA: Wadsworth, pp. 123-135, 1993.
Here is the reference to a conference:
L. Liu and H. Miao, “A specification-based approach to testing polymorphic attributes,” In Formal Methods and Software Engineering: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, (ICFEM 2004), Seattle, WA, USA, November 8-12, 2004, J. Davies, W. Schulte, and M. Barnett (Eds.), Berlin: Springer, pp. 306-349.
Here are the references to patents:
R. M. Barrett, “Convertible vertical take-off and landing miniature aerial vehicle,” U.S, Patent 6,502,787, 7 January 2003.
J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S, Patent 3 624 125, Jul. 16, 1990.
Here is the reference to a standard:
“IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems,” IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
Here are the references to theses:
J. M. Kabir, “Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty,” Doctoral Dissertation, Wilmington University, U.S, 2016.
J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, 1993.
Here is the reference to a website:
“Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies,” HuffPost, 2019, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e.
Here is the reference to a report:
“Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” NGL-006-69-3, 1987, Texas, Austin, TX, USA: Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ.
Here is the reference to a newspaper:
M. Murphy, D. Arenas, and J. M. Batista, “Value creation in crosssector collaborations: The roles of experience and alignment,” Journal of Business Ethics, 2014, http://aaa.bbb/10.1007/s10551-014-2204-x.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A1), Eq. (A2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A1; Figure A1, etc. All appendices must be cited in the main text.
You can flexibly use tenses, provided that they are proper and clear. Several tenses can appear in the same sentence. As a general guide, the past tense is preferred for the authors' actions, and research results, the present tense is preferred for the title, narrations, and results analysis, and the future tense is preferred for predictions of future research trends.
Acronyms/Abbreviations/Initialisms should be defined the first time they appear in each of three sections: the Abstract; the main text; the first figure or table. When defined for the first time, the acronym/abbreviation/initialism should be added in parentheses after the written-out form. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
All the physical quantities and units of measurement in the paper must comply with the International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Imperial, US customary and other units should be converted to SI units whenever possible.
Wherever the application domain uses a different set of units widely, please minimize the use of non-standard units or non-standard symbols for those units. Please leave a regular space or non-breaking space between each value and the measurement unit. The authors are encouraged to render the numbers specifying the dot as a decimal separator, and the comma as a thousand separator, e.g., 1,000,000.
You are strongly recommended to use MathType or Microsoft Equation Editor to edit equations. Equations should be editable rather than appear in a picture format.
Figures and tables
Create tables using Microsoft Word embedded functions or export Microsoft Excel tables. Do not create tables by hand using multiple spaces or tabs. The size of each figure should not exceed 500K. Authors are strongly recommended to divide each figure into no more than four subgraphs.
All figures and tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation, and must be numbered following their order of appearance (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.; Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
A short, explanatory caption should be placed directly below each figure. Each table must have a descriptive, short, one-line title. Note that citation is not allowed in either figure caption or table title. Reference each table and figure within the text as Table 1 or Figure 1. Ensure that the caption/title is on the same page with the figure/table.
Authors are encouraged to prepare figures in color (RGB at 8-bit per channel). There is no additional cost for online publication of full color graphics. It would be even better if you also submit suable black-and-white versions of all the color figures to avoid technical complications that may arise by converting color figures into grayscale figures (for the printed version).
Before sending your article to an Acadlore journal, please check for the final time the items in the following list:
a) The manuscript falls in the scope of the journal.
c) The manuscript has been “spellchecked” and “grammar-checked”.
d) All authors have approved the contents of the manuscript.
e) At least one author has been designated as the corresponding author.
f) All references are in the correct format and cited in the main text.
g) Permission has been obtained for using copyrighted material from other sources.
h) Author biography and black-and-white figures are ready (both are optional).
Submit your article
Please submit your article via our own manuscript processing system.
3. After acceptance
Use of DOI
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique string of characters used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI assigned to an online document published by Acadlore never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal way to use the DOI to create a URL hyperlink to your published article.
One set of page proofs will be emailed to the corresponding author, or a link will be provided in the email for him/her to download the files themselves. You may mark the corrections in the files, or list the corrections clearly point by point. Please focus on the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text. At this stage, significant changes to the article are not allowed. Please send back your corrections in one communication to help us catch up with the publishing schedule. Acadlore may proceed with the publication of your article, if no response is received.
The corresponding author will be provided with a file of the published article via email. If he/she opts for paper offprints, he/she must indicate this preference to the journal editor once the article is accepted. The paper offprints will incur an extra charge.
Free of charge