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Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability
Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS)
ISSN (print): 2957-7217
ISSN (online): 2957-9643
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2024: Vol. 3

Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS) is a distinctive journal dedicated to exploring sustainable development's benefits and challenges. It stands out for its comprehensive focus on both theoretical and practical aspects of sustainability, covering environmental, social, and economic dimensions. OCS provides a unique platform for discussing practical solutions and the impact of sustainability practices, contributing significantly to the field. What sets OCS apart from other journals is its balanced exploration of both opportunities and challenges in sustainable development. Published quarterly by Acadlore, the journal typically releases its four issues in March, June, September, and December each year.

  • Professional Service - Every article submitted undergoes an intensive yet swift peer review and editing process, adhering to the highest publication standards.

  • Prompt Publication - Thanks to our proficiency in orchestrating the peer-review, editing, and production processes, all accepted articles see rapid publication.

  • Open Access - Every published article is instantly accessible to a global readership, allowing for uninhibited sharing across various platforms at any time.

ercan özen
University of Uşak, Uşak, Turkey | website
Research interests: Financial Analysis; Corporate Finance; Finance; Financial Accounting; Financial Statement Analysis; Financial Management; Banking and Finance; Financial Risk Management; Investment; Risk Management

Aims & Scope


Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS) is an international open-access journal that not only highlights advancements but also addresses the multifaceted challenges in sustainable development. The mission of OCS is to publish the latest findings and critical analyses on the benefits, complexities, and practical solutions in sustainable development. This includes shedding light on the challenges that impede progress towards sustainability goals, such as resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and socio-economic disparities. OCS welcomes original submissions in various forms, including comprehensive reviews, in-depth research papers, and succinct communications, as well as Special Issues focusing on specific sustainability topics. The journal is committed to inspiring policy-makers, scientists, and practitioners by providing a global forum for studies related to sustainability, especially emphasizing contributions from and implications for emerging countries.

In line with its mission, OCS encourages authors to delve into both the theoretical and experimental aspects of sustainability, presenting detailed research without restrictions on paper length. Distinguishing features of the journal include:

  • Every publication benefits from prominent indexing, ensuring widespread recognition.

  • A distinguished editorial team upholds unparalleled quality and broad appeal.

  • Seamless online discoverability of each article maximizes its global reach.

  • An author-centric and transparent publication process enhances submission experience.


The scope of OCS covers an extensive array of topics, offering a rich and detailed exploration of sustainability issues:

  • Air Pollution and Climate Change: Comprehensive studies on air quality degradation, greenhouse gas emissions, and the global implications of climate change.

  • Biodiversity Preservation: In-depth analysis of strategies for conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecological balance.

  • Disaster Management: Explorations of sustainable approaches to disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

  • Distributed Energy Systems: Examination of localized, sustainable energy solutions and their role in reducing carbon footprints.

  • Drought and Desertification: Investigations into the causes, impacts, and mitigation strategies for drought and desertification.

  • Urban and Rural Sustainability Dynamics: Comparative research on sustainability challenges and solutions in both urban and rural contexts.

  • Ecological Disasters and Environmental Degradation: Studies on human-induced ecological crises and their long-term environmental impacts.

  • Integrated Economic, Social, and Environmental Challenges: Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding the interconnectedness of economic growth, social equity, and environmental sustainability.

  • Sustainability Education and Awareness: Analysis of educational initiatives and public awareness campaigns aimed at promoting sustainable practices.

  • Energy Efficiency: Innovative research on improving energy efficiency in various sectors to achieve sustainability.

  • Environmental Regulation: Critical evaluation of policy frameworks and their effectiveness in promoting environmental sustainability.

  • Green Energy Development: Research on the advancement and integration of renewable energy sources in sustainable development.

  • Life Cycle Assessment: Detailed assessments of the environmental impact of products and services from production to disposal.

  • Sustainability in Peripheral Regions: Focused studies on unique sustainability challenges faced by peripheral and ultra-peripheral regions.

  • Sustainable Development Policies: Examination of global, national, and local policies designed to promote sustainable development.

  • Urban Sustainability: Strategies and challenges in creating sustainable urban environments.

  • Border Region Sustainable Planning: Special focus on sustainability issues and strategic planning in border regions.

  • Sustainable Production and Consumption Patterns: Exploration of sustainable practices in production and consumer behavior.

  • Natural Resource Management: Strategies for the sustainable utilization and conservation of natural resources.

  • Sustainable Tourism Practices: Studies on the implementation of sustainable practices in the tourism sector.

  • Impact of Urbanization on Sustainability: Analysis of how urban sprawl and population growth affect sustainable development.

  • Innovative Waste Management and Recycling: Exploration of effective waste management strategies and recycling technologies.

  • Water Management: Research on sustainable water use, pollution control, and treatment methods.

  • Specialized Areas of Sustainability: Including education, business, marketing, economic growth, and their relationship with sustainable development.

Recent Articles
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Based on five dimensions, a green finance evaluation indicator system for the Yangtze River Economic Belt was constructed. The Criteria Importance Though Intercrieria Correlation (CRITIC)-entropy weight method was employed to measure the green finance development level across 107 prefecture-level cities and above in the Economic Belt during 2007-2020. Moreover, the Dagum Gini coefficient and kernel density estimation were utilized to reveal the regional disparities and dynamic evolution trends in the development level of green finance. It was discovered that: (i) During the sample inspection period, the development level of green finance in the Economic Belt exhibited a fluctuating upward trend, with the annual growth rates of the three major regions decreasing from downstream to upstream. Provincial capitals such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Chengdu were found to have notably higher levels of green finance development. (ii) The overall disparity in the development level of green finance in the Economic Belt showed a widening trend, with transvariation density as the primary source of overall disparity, followed by intra-regional differences, and the smallest contribution coming from inter-regional disparities. (iii) The absolute disparity in the development level of green finance within the Yangtze River Economic Belt was observed to be expanding, with the overall basin and the three major regions experiencing diverse evolutionary paths. A clear polarization trend in the downstream area was identified, accompanied by a "better-get-better" phenomenon.


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Utilizing the load capacity curve (LCC) hypothesis within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model framework, this study investigates the implications of trade openness (TO), renewable energy consumption (REC), and non-REC on environmental quality in Azerbaijan for the period 1996-2022. The LCC hypothesis, which employs the load capacity factor (LCF) as an environmental quality indicator, facilitates a comprehensive evaluation of pollution across air, water, and soil domains. It was found that the LCC hypothesis does not hold for Azerbaijan. Specifically, fossil fuel consumption (FEC) was observed to exacerbate environmental degradation, whereas the influence of REC and TO on the LCF was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that Azerbaijan’s strategy for using renewable energy does not effectively enhance environmental quality. Furthermore, the evidence indicates that economic expansion alone does not suffice to mitigate environmental challenges. To foster sustainable environmental improvement, it is recommended that the Azerbaijani government devises a more robust energy mix strategy that transcends the current reliance on renewable sources and adopts a holistic green growth model for the economy.


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This study explores the spatial accessibility of high-tech health services across municipalities on the Spanish Iberian Peninsula, focusing on the adequacy of service provision by haemodynamic facilities relative to potential demand. A comprehensive analysis utilising a Geographic Information System (GIS) was conducted to evaluate the spatial distribution of high-tech health services, employing the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method within a gravity model framework. Findings reveal a disparity in health service coverage, with peripheral municipalities in the larger Autonomous Communities exhibiting low to very low access to high-tech health services. Despite this, the majority of the population benefits from satisfactory health coverage. The study underscores the importance of improving health service accessibility in underserved areas through infrastructural enhancements or the establishment of new facilities, advocating for equitable health service distribution in line with principles of social justice. The methodology proposed herein serves as a valuable tool for health policymakers in addressing spatial inequities in health service provision. Through the lens of territorial accessibility and spatial planning, the research highlights the critical role of high-tech health infrastructure in ensuring comprehensive health coverage. The results advocate for targeted interventions to enhance health service accessibility, particularly in sparsely populated areas at the periphery of large communities, thereby contributing to the broader discourse on health equity and spatial justice in healthcare planning.


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In the context of urban planning, the design of urban spaces is recognized as a pivotal factor influencing urban sustainability, with a particular emphasis on inclusivity for individuals requiring special assistance. This study explores the interconnectedness of urban design with sustainability indicators, focusing on human-centric dimensions and the preservation of heritage within Najaf's traditional urban fabric. Through the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) via the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software, this research aims to elucidate the significance and interrelations of specific urban design indicators, thereby determining their collective impact on urban sustainability. The methodology adopted herein leverages quantitative analysis to delineate the relationships among urban design parameters and their consequential influence on sustainability outcomes. The findings suggest a substantial correlation between urban design practices and the attainment of sustainability, with a notable emphasis on the design factor as a primary influencer. This research contributes to the discourse on urban sustainability by providing a methodological framework for assessing the role of urban design in fostering inclusive and sustainable urban environments. The study underscores the potential of SEM in elucidating the complex dynamics between urban design and sustainability, thereby offering empirical evidence to support the development of informed urban planning strategies.

Open Access
Research article
Strategies for Optimizing Medical Waste Management and Treatment Technologies in Jordanian Hospitals
aseel hendi ,
jebril al-hrinat ,
abdullah m. al-ansi ,
manar hazaimeh
Available online: 03-22-2024


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Medical waste is recognized as a significant environmental and public health hazard due to its toxic and chemical constituents. In light of the varying standards for medical waste management within Jordan and comparisons with neighboring countries, this study aims to critically assess the existing management practices in Jordanian hospitals, utilizing a comprehensive database. The study further explores treatment technologies to enhance these practices. The effectiveness of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in identifying and mitigating potential risks in the disposal process of infectious medical waste is also examined. Findings suggest that management procedures exhibit regional disparities influenced by factors such as the geographical location of the healthcare institution, its operational scale, and prevailing political circumstances. Moreover, the application of FMEA was found to significantly mitigate operational risks, as evidenced by reduced Risk Priority Number (RPN) values. Challenges identified include the need for increased resources, improved training, and enhanced systems for hazardous waste management. The study underscores the importance of public awareness in elevating medical waste management standards. These insights contribute to the broader discourse on environmental health and safety in medical waste management, advocating for systemic improvements in Jordanian healthcare facilities (HCFs).


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From the perspective of the innovation ecosystem, this study investigates the specific paths through which regional innovation ecosystems drive high-quality economic development in 31 mainland provinces and cities in China, using the fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). It was discovered that: (a) Within regional innovation ecosystems, multiple concurrent causal relationships characterized by interlocking alignments exist among innovation agents, resources, and environments, leading to asymmetrical configurational outcomes between high-quality economic and non-high-quality economic development. (b) On the basis of different configurations of system elements, four paths driving high-quality regional economic development were revealed, each demonstrating a "many paths, one destination" characteristic. These include the innovation agent-aggregated regional innovation ecosystem, the diversified development integrated regional innovation ecosystem, the human resource-supported regional innovation ecosystem under market environment dominance, and the economic resource-driven regional innovation ecosystem under market environment dominance. (c) Under specific conditions, substitutive relationships between conditions of innovation agents and the innovation environment within the system were observed. The findings enrich the research perspective on high-quality economic development and offer path references and empirical evidence for regions aiming to construct effective innovation ecosystems to drive high-quality economic development.


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Sustainable development, a concept of critical importance, has seen increasing integration across various public domains, challenged by the interplay of multifaceted environmental, economic, and social factors under the influence of multi-level governance. This complexity is notably magnified in the context of Malta, a small island state with a dense population exceeding half a million within an area of merely 316 km². The unique conditions of insularity, vulnerability, and the imperative for resilience render the Maltese islands an exemplary case study for examining the dynamics driving sustainable development amidst pressures of burgeoning population growth. This study aims to delineate the historical evolution of sustainable development in Malta over three decades, marked by significant local and international events from 1992 to 2022. Employing a qualitative methodology, a thorough chronological analysis is conducted, leveraging a diverse array of sources including regulatory documents, electoral manifestos, and media coverage. These materials, rich in qualitative data, reflect the intricate interplay between local institutional developments and broader international influences, revealing key milestones and advancements in sustainable development. The findings underscore the critical need for enhanced political commitment towards sustainable development, advocating for a comprehensive approach that balances environmental, economic, and social considerations, alongside the promotion of collaborative efforts between governmental and non-governmental entities. This research contributes to the discourse on sustainable development governance within the Maltese context through two original frameworks: firstly, the classification of Malta's sustainable development governance into three phases, namely, initialisation (1992-2002), focusing on foundational recognitions and entities; exploration (2003-2011), emphasizing political acknowledgment and initiatives; and development (2012-2022), prioritizing legislative actions and increased initiative engagement. Secondly, a tripartite model advocating for collaboration, transformation, and policy coherence is proposed. By examining the motivations and strategies of key actors in sustainable development governance, the study offers valuable insights for public policy, governance, and sustainable development, particularly within the context of small island states.


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In the context of the increasingly aging rural population in China, this study investigates the implications of this demographic shift on the nation's agricultural green total factor productivity (AGTFP). Utilizing panel data from 30 provinces spanning 2005 to 2019, the AGTFP was quantified employing the slacks-based measure (SBM)-global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) model. The investigation employed a dynamic panel model, a mediation effect model, and a threshold effect model to elucidate the relationship between rural population aging and AGTFP. Additionally, the potential influence of labor transfer thresholds on this relationship was examined. It was found that: (a) AGTFP in China has exhibited a fluctuating yet ascending trajectory, with an average annual growth rate of 1.55%. The advancement of agricultural green technology has been identified as the primary driver of this growth. (b) The aging rural population significantly and positively influences AGTFP, with notable regional disparities. (c) The positive impact of rural aging on AGTFP has been facilitated through human capital accumulation, land transfer, and agricultural mechanization. (d) This beneficial effect of rural aging on AGTFP is moderated by a single threshold of labor transfer. These findings underscore the complex interplay between demographic trends and agricultural productivity, highlighting the necessity for tailored policies that accommodate the unique characteristics of rural aging in China.


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This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the influence of defense expenditures on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Turkey from 1974 to 2021. Defense spending, crucial for national security, often diverges from regular civic investments such as education, healthcare, and transportation. The significance of these expenditures becomes evident in times of international tension, terrorist threats, and warfare. Globally, defense budgets are escalating, and Turkey, a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member, is no exception. Recent trends show a decline in Turkey's public defense spending, with current levels lower than in the 1960s yet higher than the NATO average during 2014-2021. Concurrently, private sector investment in the defense industry has risen, underscoring Turkey's involvement in global defense dynamics. This research adopts the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test to scrutinize the long-term and causal relationships between defense spending and economic growth. The ARDL bounds test reveals a long-term negative cointegration relationship, while the Toda-Yamamoto test indicates a unidirectional causal relationship from defense expenditures to GDP at a 10% significance level. These findings affirm the Neoclassical economic theory's postulation of a negative impact of defense spending on growth. Despite this, the paper argues for the necessity of sustained defense expenditures in Turkey, given its unique historical and geopolitical context. The study navigates through various theoretical perspectives, notably the Keynesian and neoliberal approaches, and their specific adaptations in defense economics: military Keynesianism and private military services. It critically assesses these frameworks, integrating their critiques into the analysis. The study contributes to the discourse on defense economics by providing empirical evidence from a critical NATO member, balancing the theoretical debate with practical insights from Turkey's experience. This dual approach, combining empirical analysis with theoretical exploration, offers a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between defense spending and economic growth, particularly in geopolitically sensitive regions.


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In the contemporary landscape, sustainability emerges as a pivotal indicator of corporate commitment to environmental stewardship. This study aims to elucidate the extent to which tourism enterprises, particularly those in Balıkesir Province known for leveraging natural resources, manifest their sustainable practices and certifications in electronic media. Content analysis, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The sustainability certificates of 118 accommodation facilities with tourism operation certificates operating in Balıkesir Province and the electronic platforms on which they share them were examined. It was determined that only 9 of the 118 accommodation facilities examined had an "Environmentally Friendly Facility" certificate. It was observed that only 7 of these 16 facilities displayed these documents on their websites. Additionally, very few facilities have a "Green Key" certificate. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature on the environmental responsibility fulfillment of tourism businesses and the practices to be developed to solve environmental problems. Through the findings of the study, suggestions are offered to all stakeholders necessary for sustainable tourism, especially accommodation businesses. The study's outcomes highlight the need for enhanced visibility of sustainable practices in electronic environments, thereby underscoring the imperative for tourism enterprises to augment their commitment to environmental sustainability.
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