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Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability
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Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS)
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ISSN (print): 2957-7217
ISSN (online): 2957-9643
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2024: Vol. 3
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Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS) is a distinctive journal dedicated to exploring sustainable development's benefits and challenges. It stands out for its comprehensive focus on both theoretical and practical aspects of sustainability, covering environmental, social, and economic dimensions. OCS provides a unique platform for discussing practical solutions and the impact of sustainability practices, contributing significantly to the field. What sets OCS apart from other journals is its balanced exploration of both opportunities and challenges in sustainable development. Published quarterly by Acadlore, the journal typically releases its four issues in March, June, September, and December each year.

  • Professional Service - Every article submitted undergoes an intensive yet swift peer review and editing process, adhering to the highest publication standards.

  • Prompt Publication - Thanks to our proficiency in orchestrating the peer-review, editing, and production processes, all accepted articles see rapid publication.

  • Open Access - Every published article is instantly accessible to a global readership, allowing for uninhibited sharing across various platforms at any time.

Editor(s)-in-chief(1)
ercan özen
University of Uşak, Uşak, Turkey
ercan.ozen@usak.edu.tr | website
Research interests: Financial Analysis; Corporate Finance; Finance; Financial Accounting; Financial Statement Analysis; Financial Management; Banking and Finance; Financial Risk Management; Investment; Risk Management

Aims & Scope

Aims

Opportunities and Challenges in Sustainability (OCS) is an international open-access journal that not only highlights advancements but also addresses the multifaceted challenges in sustainable development. The mission of OCS is to publish the latest findings and critical analyses on the benefits, complexities, and practical solutions in sustainable development. This includes shedding light on the challenges that impede progress towards sustainability goals, such as resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and socio-economic disparities. OCS welcomes original submissions in various forms, including comprehensive reviews, in-depth research papers, and succinct communications, as well as Special Issues focusing on specific sustainability topics. The journal is committed to inspiring policy-makers, scientists, and practitioners by providing a global forum for studies related to sustainability, especially emphasizing contributions from and implications for emerging countries.

In line with its mission, OCS encourages authors to delve into both the theoretical and experimental aspects of sustainability, presenting detailed research without restrictions on paper length. Distinguishing features of the journal include:

  • Every publication benefits from prominent indexing, ensuring widespread recognition.

  • A distinguished editorial team upholds unparalleled quality and broad appeal.

  • Seamless online discoverability of each article maximizes its global reach.

  • An author-centric and transparent publication process enhances submission experience.

Scope

The scope of OCS covers an extensive array of topics, offering a rich and detailed exploration of sustainability issues:

  • Air Pollution and Climate Change: Comprehensive studies on air quality degradation, greenhouse gas emissions, and the global implications of climate change.

  • Biodiversity Preservation: In-depth analysis of strategies for conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecological balance.

  • Disaster Management: Explorations of sustainable approaches to disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

  • Distributed Energy Systems: Examination of localized, sustainable energy solutions and their role in reducing carbon footprints.

  • Drought and Desertification: Investigations into the causes, impacts, and mitigation strategies for drought and desertification.

  • Urban and Rural Sustainability Dynamics: Comparative research on sustainability challenges and solutions in both urban and rural contexts.

  • Ecological Disasters and Environmental Degradation: Studies on human-induced ecological crises and their long-term environmental impacts.

  • Integrated Economic, Social, and Environmental Challenges: Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding the interconnectedness of economic growth, social equity, and environmental sustainability.

  • Sustainability Education and Awareness: Analysis of educational initiatives and public awareness campaigns aimed at promoting sustainable practices.

  • Energy Efficiency: Innovative research on improving energy efficiency in various sectors to achieve sustainability.

  • Environmental Regulation: Critical evaluation of policy frameworks and their effectiveness in promoting environmental sustainability.

  • Green Energy Development: Research on the advancement and integration of renewable energy sources in sustainable development.

  • Life Cycle Assessment: Detailed assessments of the environmental impact of products and services from production to disposal.

  • Sustainability in Peripheral Regions: Focused studies on unique sustainability challenges faced by peripheral and ultra-peripheral regions.

  • Sustainable Development Policies: Examination of global, national, and local policies designed to promote sustainable development.

  • Urban Sustainability: Strategies and challenges in creating sustainable urban environments.

  • Border Region Sustainable Planning: Special focus on sustainability issues and strategic planning in border regions.

  • Sustainable Production and Consumption Patterns: Exploration of sustainable practices in production and consumer behavior.

  • Natural Resource Management: Strategies for the sustainable utilization and conservation of natural resources.

  • Sustainable Tourism Practices: Studies on the implementation of sustainable practices in the tourism sector.

  • Impact of Urbanization on Sustainability: Analysis of how urban sprawl and population growth affect sustainable development.

  • Innovative Waste Management and Recycling: Exploration of effective waste management strategies and recycling technologies.

  • Water Management: Research on sustainable water use, pollution control, and treatment methods.

  • Specialized Areas of Sustainability: Including education, business, marketing, economic growth, and their relationship with sustainable development.

Articles
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Abstract

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In the context of the increasingly aging rural population in China, this study investigates the implications of this demographic shift on the nation's agricultural green total factor productivity (AGTFP). Utilizing panel data from 30 provinces spanning 2005 to 2019, the AGTFP was quantified employing the slacks-based measure (SBM)-global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) model. The investigation employed a dynamic panel model, a mediation effect model, and a threshold effect model to elucidate the relationship between rural population aging and AGTFP. Additionally, the potential influence of labor transfer thresholds on this relationship was examined. It was found that: (a) AGTFP in China has exhibited a fluctuating yet ascending trajectory, with an average annual growth rate of 1.55%. The advancement of agricultural green technology has been identified as the primary driver of this growth. (b) The aging rural population significantly and positively influences AGTFP, with notable regional disparities. (c) The positive impact of rural aging on AGTFP has been facilitated through human capital accumulation, land transfer, and agricultural mechanization. (d) This beneficial effect of rural aging on AGTFP is moderated by a single threshold of labor transfer. These findings underscore the complex interplay between demographic trends and agricultural productivity, highlighting the necessity for tailored policies that accommodate the unique characteristics of rural aging in China.

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This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the influence of defense expenditures on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Turkey from 1974 to 2021. Defense spending, crucial for national security, often diverges from regular civic investments such as education, healthcare, and transportation. The significance of these expenditures becomes evident in times of international tension, terrorist threats, and warfare. Globally, defense budgets are escalating, and Turkey, a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member, is no exception. Recent trends show a decline in Turkey's public defense spending, with current levels lower than in the 1960s yet higher than the NATO average during 2014-2021. Concurrently, private sector investment in the defense industry has risen, underscoring Turkey's involvement in global defense dynamics. This research adopts the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test to scrutinize the long-term and causal relationships between defense spending and economic growth. The ARDL bounds test reveals a long-term negative cointegration relationship, while the Toda-Yamamoto test indicates a unidirectional causal relationship from defense expenditures to GDP at a 10% significance level. These findings affirm the Neoclassical economic theory's postulation of a negative impact of defense spending on growth. Despite this, the paper argues for the necessity of sustained defense expenditures in Turkey, given its unique historical and geopolitical context. The study navigates through various theoretical perspectives, notably the Keynesian and neoliberal approaches, and their specific adaptations in defense economics: military Keynesianism and private military services. It critically assesses these frameworks, integrating their critiques into the analysis. The study contributes to the discourse on defense economics by providing empirical evidence from a critical NATO member, balancing the theoretical debate with practical insights from Turkey's experience. This dual approach, combining empirical analysis with theoretical exploration, offers a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between defense spending and economic growth, particularly in geopolitically sensitive regions.

Abstract

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In the contemporary landscape, sustainability emerges as a pivotal indicator of corporate commitment to environmental stewardship. This study aims to elucidate the extent to which tourism enterprises, particularly those in Balıkesir Province known for leveraging natural resources, manifest their sustainable practices and certifications in electronic media. Content analysis, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The sustainability certificates of 118 accommodation facilities with tourism operation certificates operating in Balıkesir Province and the electronic platforms on which they share them were examined. It was determined that only 9 of the 118 accommodation facilities examined had an "Environmentally Friendly Facility" certificate. It was observed that only 7 of these 16 facilities displayed these documents on their websites. Additionally, very few facilities have a "Green Key" certificate. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature on the environmental responsibility fulfillment of tourism businesses and the practices to be developed to solve environmental problems. Through the findings of the study, suggestions are offered to all stakeholders necessary for sustainable tourism, especially accommodation businesses. The study's outcomes highlight the need for enhanced visibility of sustainable practices in electronic environments, thereby underscoring the imperative for tourism enterprises to augment their commitment to environmental sustainability.

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In the context of rapid economic development, air pollution has emerged as a critical environmental issue, particularly in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. This study, through the application of Air Quality Index (AQI) data and K-means clustering, investigates the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of air quality in this region. It has been identified that air pollution in this area is not only subject to seasonal fluctuation but also exhibits distinct patterns of local spatial aggregation. Utilizing a Back Propagation (BP) Neural Network model, this research predicts AQI values, offering foresight into the development and transformation of haze weather conditions. The findings of this investigation are instrumental in enhancing the understanding of air pollution dynamics, facilitating the formulation of effective air control strategies. Such strategies are vital for the issuance of accurate pollution warnings and reminders, thereby contributing to the mitigation of severe pollution impacts.

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This study employed Schwartz's basic value theory and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to elucidate environmentally sustainable tourist behaviour (ESTB) among Muslim tourists in Indonesia. Two central inquiries were examined. Firstly, the impact of intrapersonal environmental and non-environmental values on the ESTB of Muslim tourists was scrutinised. Secondly, the mediating role of environmental attitude (EA) on these intrapersonal values towards ESTB in Muslim-friendly destinations in Indonesia was assessed. A cross-sectional survey, conducted in June and July 2022, collected data from 300 Muslim tourists at Muslim-friendly destinations in Indonesia. Participants, aged 17 and above, were selected through a purposive sampling approach; they had obtained a CHSE certificate in Malang during the transition from epidemic to the new normal era and had visited at least one of the 26 Muslim-friendly tourist spots. Analysis using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) revealed that while environmental knowledge (EK) and attitudes positively influenced ESTB, environmental concern (EC) and religious value (RGV) did not demonstrate a direct impact. Moreover, it was discerned that EA played a significant mediating role between RGV, EC, EK, and environmentally sustainable behaviours. It was further observed that individuals endorsing egoistic values typically exhibited weaker pro-environmental beliefs and were less inclined towards pro-environmental actions. Conversely, those with altruistic values displayed stronger pro-environmental beliefs, consequently impacting their environmental sustainability behaviour (ESB) in Muslim-friendly tourist destinations.

Open Access
Research article
Modeling the Influences on Sustainable Attitudes of Students Towards Environmental Challenges: A Partial Least Squares- Structural Equation Modelling Approach
sinan saraçlı ,
berkalp tunca ,
i̇sa gül ,
erkan arı ,
bilge villi ,
buket i̇pek berk ,
i̇hsan berk ,
gratiela dana boca
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Available online: 09-27-2023

Abstract

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To assess sustainable attitudes towards environmental issues, understanding the most impactful variables amongst sub-dimensions of attitudes proves critical. In this research, the subdimensions of attitudes of students towards environmental challenges were modelled. An online Likert-scale questionnaire, spanning from 1 'Strongly Disagree' to 5 'Strongly Agree', was administered to 380 high school and associate degree students in Afyonkarahisar city center between 15 September and 15 November 2022. The questionnaire aimed to gauge the students' attitudes using the Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioural sub-dimensions. Results revealed a statistically significant effect coefficient of 0.557 between the cognitive and affective attitudes. In a similar vein, the cognitive attitude's impact on behavioural attitude was found to be statistically significant with an effect coefficient of 0.534. However, a coefficient of 0.017 between affective and behavioural attitudes demonstrated no statistically significant mediator effect. Contrary to the initial hypotheses surrounding the mediator effect of affective attitude on behavioural attitude, the findings indicate that cognitive and affective attitudes independently influence behavioural attitude. Within the cognitive dimension, the awareness of the escalating environmental problems emerged as a paramount item. It is implied that for fostering sustainable environmental behaviour, the cognitive dimension plays a pivotal role.

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Using panel data from 30 Chinese provinces spanning 2003-2019, the relationship between trade openness and haze pollution, moderated by environmental regulation, was investigated through spatial econometric models. It was observed that the effect of trade openness on haze pollution was negative, albeit insignificant, suggesting that trade openness alone did not markedly influence haze reduction in China. Contrarily, environmental regulation, while intensifying haze pollution, displayed a significant moderating role. When combined with environmental regulations, trade openness showed potential in mitigating haze pollution, thus enhancing environmental quality. Although trade openness did not display significant regional variance in its impact on haze pollution, considerable regional disparities were found in the effects of environmental regulation on haze pollution and its moderating influence on the trade openness-haze pollution relationship.

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In the quest to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), health economics and the financing of health expenditures emerge as pivotal elements. This literature-based exploration delves into the intricate nexus between health financing and sustainable development. Interpretations of pertinent data tables suggest that the financing level of health services at the household level is typically below the global average, indicating a prominent gap in health financing development. Specifically, Turkey's stance on health financing is evaluated against global benchmarks, highlighting its unique challenges and opportunities. This research underscores the intrinsic relationship between health financing and sustainable development, emphasizing the imperative for ongoing evaluation and enhancement in this domain to foster sustainable progression. Notably, the study refrains from employing statistical methodologies, relying solely on literature assessments and data table interpretations. Health financing, pivotal to sustainable development, invariably demands continual advancements and research.

Open Access
Research article
Digital Transformation and Its Implications on Educational Quality: An Empirical Analysis Within the European Union Context
mirela cristea ,
graţiela georgiana noja ,
teodora andreea găinaru ,
catrinel delia tălăban
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Available online: 09-05-2023

Abstract

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In the face of profound digital transformations, the societal and economic landscape has undergone significant shifts, notably impacting the educational sector across European Union (EU) member states. Through the employment of robust regression models, employing both Huber and biweight iterations, data spanning 1995-2021 were analyzed. The focus was on the relationship between the Education Index (EI) (a component of the Human Development Index (HDI)) and the Global Innovation Index (GINNOV). Results from this analysis suggest that an increase in internet usage, global innovation levels, and poverty alleviation measures have been found to positively influence the EI. Concurrently, positive correlations between internet usage, the contribution of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector to GDP, employment rates, and the EI on global innovation levels were observed. Interestingly, adverse correlations were detected between household internet access and the ICT sector's GDP contribution to the EI, and between internet access and high-speed internet coverage with global innovation. Such findings underline the need for strategic interventions within the education sector, which are elaborated upon in the article.

Abstract

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This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of environmental susceptibility associated with the development of the Belgrade-Novi Sad Railway Route in Serbia. Fostering socio-economic growth through transportation infrastructure necessitates an acute awareness of potential ecological implications, a nexus often overlooked in the haste of progress. Accordingly, a broad spectrum of environmental parameters such as land use, air and noise pollution, water resources, and biodiversity were systematically assessed. The employment of Habitat Equivalency Analysis facilitated the discernment of potential environmental detriments linked with the railway project. Significant findings from this investigation offer critical insights for policymakers, urban planners, and environmental conservationists, thus enriching the understanding of ecological consequences attached to the expansion of the specified railway corridor. These findings, serving as a tool for informed decision-making, are pivotal in striving towards a balanced approach between the exigencies of transportation infrastructure enhancement and the indispensable goal of environmental preservation. Ultimately, the goal of this study is to promote an enhanced understanding of the reciprocal relationship between infrastructure development and environmental impact, thereby contributing to the ongoing discourse on sustainable practices beneficial for current and future generations.
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