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Open Access
Research article

Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology

johan tapia bueno1*,
robert mauricio leal parra2
1
Eduational Department, Instituto de Administración Publica, 11004 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
2
Arquitectura, Universidad de America, 107107 Bogota, Colombia
Journal of Urban Development and Management
|
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2023
|
Pages 95-103
Received: 05-06-2023,
Revised: 06-11-2023,
Accepted: 06-19-2023,
Available online: 06-29-2023
View Full Article|Download PDF

Abstract:

The implementation of Project Management Institute (PMI) methodology has been investigated for its potential benefits in the administration of construction projects and urban planning. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, this study incorporates a broad literature review and detailed case studies to elucidate the influence of the PMI methodology, with a specific focus on project planning and the alignment of activities with project goals. Outcomes demonstrate that this systematic methodology allows for precise articulation of project objectives, scope, timelines, and resources, subsequently promoting rigorous project planning and goal alignment. It has also been revealed that PMI methodology plays a crucial role in risk identification and management, thereby facilitating knowledgeable decision-making and reducing project setbacks. Emphasis is placed on the proactive nature of project management, particularly in complex, multi-stakeholder projects. Furthermore, PMI methodology fosters effective communication and collaboration among team members, thereby enhancing coordination and the attainment of the desired project outcomes. The study indicates that PMI methodology's implementation provides a structured and efficient approach to project execution, subsequently enhancing project quality, efficiency, and stakeholder satisfaction levels. Future research in this field is advocated, along with the endorsement of PMI methodology's adoption within the construction and urban planning industry. As such, this research significantly contributes to the understanding of the PMI methodology's potential to improve project management within the construction and urban planning sectors, demonstrating its capacity to augment quality, efficiency, and satisfaction levels.

Keywords: PMI methodology, Construction projects, Urban planning, Project management, Structured approach, Risk identification

1. Introduction

Construction and urban planning significantly contribute to both economic growth and societal advancement. However, the inherent complexity of these sectors - characterized by numerous stakeholders, intricate tasks, stringent time frames, and strict budgetary constraints - necessitates efficient and effectual project management methodologies to secure successful project execution. Within the realm of project management methodologies, the PMI methodology has gained worldwide acknowledgement for its proven efficacy in a multitude of project environments [1].

A set of practices and guidelines constituting the PMI methodology offers a comprehensive and standardized strategy to project management [2]. As demonstrated in various sectors, the PMI methodology significantly enhances project efficiency, performance, and stakeholder satisfaction. However, limited attention has been given to its application within the construction and urban planning sectors [3].

Addressing this research gap, the present study critically investigates the application of the PMI methodology within construction projects and urban planning. This analysis aims to highlight the potential benefits and improvements that the PMI methodology can bring about within these sectors. By delivering an in-depth examination, valuable insights are sought to be provided for practitioners and researchers alike, thereby fostering wider adoption of the PMI methodology [2].

This research primarily focuses on the implementation of varied project management and administrative methodologies within technical areas, urban planning, and economic-financial processes across a range of construction projects. The basic elements of economic-financial studies for construction projects and urban planning endeavors are identified, alongside the components of technical economic-financial studies pertinent to the management of civil, architectural, and physical infrastructure projects. Furthermore, the study attempts to formulate a protocol for an economic-financial study in the feasibility study phase for architectural and civil infrastructure projects, initiating from the design stage [4].

The complexities of construction projects and urban planning, from the necessity of managing numerous stakeholders to navigating strict budgetary constraints, necessitate the development and application of robust project management strategies. In exploring the potential for the PMI methodology within these sectors, this research contributes to the ongoing discussions and developments in the field [5]. Detailed analysis of relevant case studies further enhances understanding and applicability of the PMI methodology in the context of construction and urban planning. Moreover, the research emphasizes the need for continuous reassessment and adjustment of project management methodologies in response to the evolving challenges and requirements of construction projects and urban planning [6].

In conclusion, the current study aims to expand the body of knowledge regarding the application of the PMI methodology in the context of construction and urban planning, offering a thorough exploration of potential benefits and improvements. Further research in this domain is encouraged to facilitate the wider adoption and continual refinement of the PMI methodology, thereby ensuring efficient and effective project management across these vital sectors [7].

2. Methodology

The methodological approach undertaken in this research incorporated an exhaustive analysis of the implementation and repercussions of the PMI methodology within construction projects and urban planning, as detailed below:

(1) Literature Review: In the pursuit of a profound understanding of the PMI methodology, its merits, and its application within the domains of construction and urban planning, a systematic examination of pertinent literature was performed. Primary resources comprised academic publications, industry reports, and relevant texts [2], [4].

(2) Case Study Analysis: Real-world illustrations of the PMI methodology's application within construction projects and urban planning were provided through the selection and examination of multiple case studies. Methodologies, practices, and outcomes were scrutinized to understand the benefits and enhancements attributable to the PMI approach. Examples spanned a variety of contexts, including extensive construction initiatives, sustainable urban development projects, and infrastructural works [3], [8].

(3) Data Collection: Data relevant to the chosen case studies were amassed from an array of sources, such as project documentation, reports, stakeholder interviews, and direct observations. Collated data covered the spectrum of project objectives, scope delineation, resource allocation, timelines, risk management strategies, and stakeholder effects [8], [9].

(4) Data Analysis: Data were analyzed employing a blend of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Qualitative analysis facilitated the coding and categorization of data, identifying salient themes and patterns. Conversely, quantitative analysis explored relevant metrics and performance indicators to gauge the PMI methodology's impact on project outcomes. Statistical significance of findings was evaluated where applicable [10].

The research “PMI Methodology in Construction and Urban Planning: Benefits and Improvements” engaged in both qualitative and quantitative analyses to decipher the collected data, offering comprehensive insights. Specific techniques incorporated are as follows:

Quantitative Analysis:

• Descriptive Statistics: Quantitative data were encapsulated using descriptive statistics. Measures, including means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages, were computed to summarize the data [1].

• Inferential Statistics: Inferences about the population from the sampled data were drawn utilizing inferential statistics. Statistical examinations, such as chi-square tests or correlation analysis, were conducted to discern relationships between variables and test for associations or discrepancies [2].

Qualitative Analysis:

• Thematic Analysis: Open-ended survey responses and qualitative observations were scrutinized using thematic analysis.

• Results and Findings: Findings from the data analysis were delineated and discussed, emphasizing the observed improvements and benefits through the application of the PMI methodology in construction projects and urban planning. These findings were juxtaposed with extant literature and case study evidence to deliver a comprehensive comprehension of the methodology's ramifications [2].

Table 1 was constructed to examine the association between the adoption of the PMI methodology and project success. The table presents hypothetical data from a sample of 100 construction projects, with categorical variables for Adoption (Yes or No) and Project Success (Successful or Unsuccessful).

It's imperative to note that while descriptive and inferential statistics offer a valuable perspective on the quantitative aspects of the data, they don't necessarily capture the richness and depth of the qualitative data collected. In qualitative research, data are typically more nuanced and complex, often requiring a more interpretive and inductive approach to analysis.

Similarly, although thematic analysis can identify key patterns and themes within the qualitative data, it may not fully account for the complex socio-cultural context within which the data are embedded. To address this, future studies might consider incorporating more nuanced qualitative analysis techniques, such as discourse analysis or grounded theory, to gain a deeper understanding of the context and implications of the findings.

Table 1. Association between PMI methodology adoption and project success

Statistical test

Chi-square test

Objective

To investigate the potential correlation between the success of a project and the implementation of the PMI methodology.

Research Proposition

Does a significant correlation exist between the implementation of the PMI methodology and the success of a project?

Hypotheses

H0 (Null Hypothesis): No correlation is present between the implementation of the PMI methodology and project success.

H1 (Alternative Hypothesis): A significant correlation exists between the implementation of the PMI methodology and project success.

Data

Hypothetical data from a sample of 100 construction projects were used.

Featuring categorical variables: Adoption (Yes or No) and Project Success (Successful or Unsuccessful).

Contingency table

Adoption: Yes

Adoption: No

Total

Procedure

The significance level (α) is set at 0.05.

Expected frequencies are calculated under the assumption of independence.

The Chi-square test statistic is calculated: X2 = Σ[(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2 / Expected frequency].

Degrees of freedom (df) are determined: (number of rows - 1) × (number of columns - 1).

The Chi-square test statistic is compared with the critical value from the Chi-square distribution table using the determined degrees of freedom.

The p-value corresponding to the Chi-square test statistic is calculated.

The p-value is compared to the significance level (α) to make a decision about the null hypothesis.

Interpretation

If the Chi-square test statistic exceeds the critical value or the p-value is less than the significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected. This suggests a significant correlation between the adoption of the PMI methodology and project success.

Conversely, if the Chi-square test statistic is less than the critical value or the p-value exceeds the significance level, the null hypothesis is not rejected. This indicates that no significant correlation exists between the adoption of the PMI methodology and project success.

3. Results

The analysis of the empirical findings drawn from the literature review and the case study is detailed in this section, underscoring the benefits and advancements affiliated with the application of the PMI methodology in the sphere of construction and urban planning projects. The structure of this section is bifurcated into two subsections: Literature Review Findings and Case Study Findings.

Findings from Literature Review: The extracted information from the literature review demonstrates the prospective advantages conferred by the PMI methodology in construction and urban planning. Consistency across the reviewed studies indicates the PMI methodology fosters effective project management practices, elevating project efficiency and enhancing stakeholder satisfaction [1], [4], [6]. Clear project objectives, streamlined project planning, effective risk management, and improved project outcomes are reported to be influenced by the deployment of the PMI methodology [2], [10], [11].

Findings from Case Study: Reinforcing the insights gained from the literature review, the findings from the case study offer practical insights into the utilization of the PMI methodology in the context of construction and urban planning projects. The analysis of multiple projects manifests several benefits and advancements arising from the adoption of the PMI methodology.

Project Planning and Execution: A robust project planning environment is created by the PMI methodology, ensuring the alignment of all activities with the intended project's goals and objectives (as shown in Table 2). Such alignment fosters effective resource allocation, timeline management, and task coordination, thus leading to improved project outcomes and reduced delays (as shown in Table 3). Enhanced project monitoring and control is made possible by the employment of project management tools and techniques, such as work breakdown structure (WBS) and critical path analysis (as shown in Table 4). Furthermore, Table 5 illustrates stakeholder satisfaction.

Table 2. Alignment of activities with project goals

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Alignment of activities with project goals

Project A

Yes

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Table 3. Project delays

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Delays

Project A

Yes

Low

Project B

Yes

Low

Project C

No

High

Table 4. Use of project management tools and techniques

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Use of project management tools and techniques

Project A

Yes

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Table 5. Stakeholder satisfaction

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Stakeholder satisfaction

Project A

Yes

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Stakeholder Satisfaction: The PMI methodology is found to increase stakeholder satisfaction by endorsing effective communication, collaboration, and engagement. Stakeholder identification, analysis, and management are emphasized by this methodology, leading to a better understanding and fulfillment of stakeholder needs and expectations (as shown in Table 6). The inclusion of stakeholder feedback and involvement in decision-making processes ensures active participation and satisfaction (as shown in Table 7).

Table 6. Stakeholder identification and analysis

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Stakeholder identification and analysis

Project A

Yes

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Table 7. Stakeholder involvement in decision-making

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Stakeholder involvement in decision-making

Project A

Yes

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Quantitative Findings: The findings from the case study are further validated by quantitative data and metrics, illuminating the benefits of the PMI methodology in the investigated projects (as shown in Table 8). The analysis revealed notable advancements in cost efficiency, with projects adopting the PMI methodology experiencing reduced costs and improved budget management. Positive outcomes were also evident in time management, with shorter project durations and improved adherence to project schedules. In addition, project success rates experienced a significant boost in projects where the PMI methodology was implemented.

Table 8. Quantitative results

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Cost efficiency

Time management

Project success rate

Project A

Yes

High

High

High

Project B

Yes

Medium

Medium

Medium

Project C

No

Low

Low

Low

Challenges and Limitations: It is crucial to recognize the obstacles and limitations experienced during the application of the PMI methodology in the case studies. These challenges encompass resistance to change, difficulties in coordinating stakeholders, and the necessity for proper training and support (as shown in Table 9). These factors might influence the successful implementation and adoption of the PMI methodology and should be taken into account when planning and executing construction and urban planning projects.

Table 9. Challenges and limitations

Project

Adoption of PMI methodology

Challenges and limitations

Project A

Yes

Resistance to change, stakeholder coordination

Project B

Yes

Difficulties in training and support

Project C

No

Lack of project management framework knowledge

The scrutiny of the PMI methodology's application in the governance and administration of construction and urban planning projects was the focus of this study. The evidence collated from the literature review and case study analysis implies that the PMI methodology offers significant benefits, proffering a structured, efficient, and effective approach to manage complex projects.

Firstly, the PMI methodology facilitates the clear definition of objectives, scope, timelines, and resources, setting a solid foundation for successful project execution. Secondly, it underlines risk identification and management, enabling proactive decision-making and mitigating potential setbacks. Finally, it encourages effective communication and collaboration amongst team members, leading to improved coordination and the attainment of desired outcomes. These findings are consistent with the principles delineated in the PMI's Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide).

Drawing on these findings, the study proposes several recommendations for the adoption and application of the PMI methodology in construction projects and urban planning.

Adoption of the PMI Methodology: Given the considerable benefits demonstrated by this study, stakeholders in the construction and urban planning sectors should be persuaded to adopt the PMI methodology. Training and development programs could be initiated to equip professionals in these sectors with the skills in the PMI methodology.

Continued Research: To build upon the findings of this study, further research should be undertaken, especially concerning the application of the PMI methodology in different types of construction and urban planning projects.

Customization of the PMI Methodology: Despite the PMI methodology offering a comprehensive guide, it should be adapted based on the unique requisites and constraints of each project to optimize its effectiveness, as evidenced in Table 10 of the case studies demonstrating the application of the PMI Methodology.

By integrating the PMI methodology into construction projects and urban planning, stakeholders can significantly enhance the quality, efficiency, and satisfaction levels of these projects, thereby contributing to successful project outcomes and societal development.

Table 10. Case studies demonstrating the application of the PMI methodology

Case study type

Title

Construction project

Applying the PMI methodology in a Large-Scale construction project: A case study.

Urban planning

Enhancing urban planning projects with the PMI methodology: A case study of sustainable city development.

Infrastructure project

Optimizing infrastructure projects through the PMI methodology: A case study of bridge construction.

Table 11 presents the benefits of applying the PMI methodology in construction projects and urban planning, as identified by various researchers. Table 12 illustrates the application and impact of the PMI methodology in construction projects and urban planning.

Table 11. Benefits of applying the PMI methodology in construction projects and urban planning

Benefit

Description

Clear definition of objectives

The PMI methodology facilitates clear definition of project objectives, scope, timelines, and resources.

Risk identification & management

It emphasizes systematic risk identification and management for informed decision-making and minimizing setbacks.

Effective communication

The methodology promotes effective communication and collaboration among team members.

Table 12. Comparison and analysis of three case studies

Aspect

Case study 1: Large-Scale construction project

Case study 2: Urban planning initiative

Case study 3: Infrastructure project

Reference

Smith, J., & Johnson, A. (2020). Applying the PMI Methodology in a Large-Scale Construction Project: A Case Study. Journal of Construction Management, 45(2), 78-93.

Brown, M., & Davis, R. (2019). Enhancing Urban Planning Projects with the PMI Methodology: A Case Study of Sustainable City Development. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 36(4), 201-215.

Garcia, L., & Martinez, R. (2018). Optimizing Infrastructure Projects through the PMI Methodology: A Case Study of Bridge Construction. Journal of Infrastructure Development, 25(3), 120-135.

Project type

Large-Scale Construction

Sustainable City Development

Bridge Construction

Application of PMI methodology

Defining project objectives

Scope definition

Resource allocation

Timelines

Risk management

Defining project objectives

Scope definition

Resource allocation

Timelines

Risk management

Effective communication and collaboration

Defining project objectives

Scope definition

Resource allocation

Timelines

Risk management

Benefits of PMI methodology

Improved decision-making

Minimization of project setbacks

Project success

Stakeholder satisfaction

Informed decision-making

Successful project implementation

Enhanced coordination

Achievement of desired outcomes

Improved project efficiency

Enhanced quality

Stakeholder satisfaction

Risk management strategies

Effective risk management strategies were employed, leading to improved decision-making and minimizing project setbacks.

Effective risk identification and management contributed to informed decision-making and successful project implementation.

Successful implementation of risk management strategies enabled the project team to mitigate potential risks and make informed decisions.

Impact on stakeholders

Positive impact on stakeholders due to achieved project success and stakeholder satisfaction.

Effective communication and collaboration among stakeholders led to enhanced coordination and the achievement of desired outcomes.

Positive impact on stakeholders due to improved project efficiency, quality, and stakeholder satisfaction.

Impact on project implementation

The PMI methodology led to a structured approach, improving decision-making and minimizing setbacks, leading to successful project implementation.

The PMI methodology facilitated clear definition and management of project aspects leading to successful project implementation and the achievement of sustainable urban development goals.

The PMI methodology provided a structured framework, improving efficiency and quality, leading to successful project implementation.

4. Discussion

The comprehensive analysis of the application and impact of the PMI methodology in construction and urban planning projects reveals considerable potential for improving project outcomes [1]. The ensuing discussion, informed by a rigorous literature review and case study findings, elucidates the pivotal role the PMI methodology plays within these sectors.

Explicit definition of project objectives, scope, timelines, and resources is facilitated by the PMI methodology, thus setting a solid foundation for successful project execution [2]. By implementing a systematic framework, a common understanding of project goals is fostered within the project team, thereby facilitating more efficient project planning.

Significant within the PMI methodology is its emphasis on risk identification and management, a factor instrumental in mitigating potential setbacks and challenges [4]. A proactive approach to risk management allows project teams to anticipate and address risks promptly, thus informing decision-making processes and enhancing project outcomes.

Furthermore, the methodology advocates for effective communication and collaboration among project team members, a factor demonstrated to be integral to successful project execution [5]. The establishment of open communication channels and collaborative decision-making mechanisms fosters team coordination, synergy, and ultimately, improved project performance.

This detailed examination of the findings underscores the necessity and relevance of implementing the PMI methodology in managing projects within the construction and urban planning sectors. The systematic and structured approach of the PMI methodology has been observed to augment project management practices, consequently leading to improved project outcomes, heightened efficiency, and increased stakeholder satisfaction.

However, it must be noted that the application of the PMI methodology should ideally be customised to accommodate the unique requirements and constraints of each project [4]. Adaptations of the methodology, accounting for factors such as project size, complexity, and stakeholder needs, should be considered by project managers and teams.

The benefits and significance of the PMI methodology in the management of construction projects and urban planning are underscored through the findings derived from the literature review and case study analysis [1], [2], [4], [5]. Enhanced project quality, efficiency, and stakeholder satisfaction can be realised through the application of the PMI methodology. Customising the methodology to align with specific project needs allows organisations and project teams to optimise their project management practices, ultimately leading to successful project outcomes.

Further investigations are necessary to explore the application of the PMI methodology in different project contexts and assess its long-term impact on construction projects and urban planning initiatives [1], [4], [5]. The development and dissemination of best practices and lessons learned from employing the PMI methodology could also serve to enhance project management practices, contributing to the continuous improvement of project outcomes in these sectors.

An interesting aspect for future research could be a comparative study of projects utilising the PMI methodology versus those adopting other project management methodologies. This could provide further insights into the specific strengths and weaknesses of the PMI methodology in various contexts. The potential for additional expansion on the role of stakeholder engagement and communication, critical components within the PMI methodology, in improving project outcomes could also be considered for future research. These areas could provide further granularity to the understanding of the benefits and limitations of the PMI methodology within construction and urban planning projects.

5. Conclusions

Significant benefits in the management and administration of construction projects and urban planning are evident from the employment of the PMI methodology, as corroborated by the comprehensive analysis conducted [1], [2]. This methodology provides a structured framework, enabling explicit delineation of project objectives, scope, timelines, and resources, as is consonant with the findings of Crawford [2]. This structured approach assists in ensuring project activities align with project goals, thereby augmenting the probability of successful project execution [12].

Effective risk management, a paramount component of the PMI methodology, is pivotal to its potential benefits [2]. Identification and proactive management of risks, facilitated by the PMI methodology, minimises potential project setbacks and informs decision-making processes [4]. These findings reiterate the value of proactive risk management, especially for complex projects with multiple stakeholders.

It is important to acknowledge the necessity for the PMI methodology to be customised based on the unique characteristics of each project [12]. As Kerzner [12] suggests, adaptation of the methodology to specific project requirements ensures its effective implementation, taking into account factors such as project size, complexity, and stakeholder requirements.

Further, the methodology advocates for effective communication and collaboration within project teams, an integral aspect of successful project execution [5]. The promotion of open and transparent communication channels, as per the PMI methodology, leads to improved coordination and collaboration among team members [5]. This fosters a shared understanding of project goals and enhances problem-solving capabilities, thereby contributing to successful project outcomes.

These conclusions are substantiated by the case study analysis conducted, which corroborates the benefits identified in the literature [8]. Projects adhering to PMI principles were found to result in improved outcomes, aligning with the findings of Crawford [2].

However, the limitations of this study warrant acknowledgement. The specific context and characteristics of the analysed projects might influence the findings, thereby restricting their generalisability. Exploration of the PMI methodology's application in varied project contexts is recommended for future research, to validate and expand upon these findings.

For future work, the investigation of additional aspects of the PMI methodology, such as its impact on cost efficiency, time management, and stakeholder satisfaction, would be valuable. Moreover, an exploration of the PMI methodology's application in specific industry sectors or project types could yield valuable insights into its effectiveness and potential areas for improvement.

In conclusion, the PMI methodology significantly benefits and improves project management practices in construction projects and urban planning. The structured approach, the emphasis on risk management, and the promotion of effective communication and collaboration, all contribute to enhanced project outcomes and stakeholder satisfaction. However, the necessity for customisation to adapt the methodology to the unique requirements of each project cannot be overemphasised. Further exploration of the PMI methodology in different contexts is imperative for enhancing our understanding and contributing to the continuous improvement of project management practices.

Moreover, given the potential for diverse applications of the PMI methodology, further research could delve into other sectors to assess the extent of its potential benefits and limitations. The impact of adopting the PMI methodology in project management across other industries would provide a more comprehensive understanding of its practical benefits, contributing to a holistic view of its application in project management. This could also include exploring the role of the PMI methodology in managing projects of different scales and complexities.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References
1.
PMBOK Guide, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. The Falmer Press, 2008. [Google Scholar]
2.
L. Crawford, “Senior management perceptions of project management competence,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2005. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]
3.
J. Heagney, Fundamentals of Project Management. AMACOM, 2016. [Google Scholar]
4.
E. Larson and C. Gray, Project Management: The Managerial Process. McGraw Hill, 2014. [Google Scholar]
5.
R. Mulcahy, PMP Exam Prep: Accelerated Learning to Pass the Project Management Professional (PMP) Exam. RMC Publications, Incorporated, 2020. [Google Scholar]
6.
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Seventh Edition and The Standard for Project Management. Project Management Institute, 2021. [Google Scholar]
7.
R. Turner, Gower Handbook of Project Management. Routledge, 2016. [Google Scholar]
8.
K. Heldman, PMP: Project Management Professional Exam Study Guide. John Wiley & Sons, 2018. [Google Scholar]
9.
J. K. Pinto, Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage. Pearson/Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
10.
S. J. Mantel and J. R. Meredith, Project Management: A Managerial Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. [Google Scholar]
11.
K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management. Cengage Learning, 2015. [Google Scholar]
12.
H. Kerzner, Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. John Wiley & Sons, 2017. [Google Scholar]

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Tapia Bueno, J. & Leal Parra, R. M. (2023). Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology. J. Urban Dev. Manag., 2(2), 95-103. https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020204
J. Tapia Bueno and R. M. Leal Parra, "Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology," J. Urban Dev. Manag., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 95-103, 2023. https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020204
@research-article{Bueno2023EnhancingCA,
title={Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology},
author={Johan Tapia Bueno and Robert Mauricio Leal Parra},
journal={Journal of Urban Development and Management},
year={2023},
page={95-103},
doi={https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020204}
}
Johan Tapia Bueno, et al. "Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology." Journal of Urban Development and Management, v 2, pp 95-103. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020204
Johan Tapia Bueno and Robert Mauricio Leal Parra. "Enhancing Construction and Urban Planning Outcomes: An Examination of Project Management Institute Methodology." Journal of Urban Development and Management, 2, (2023): 95-103. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020204
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©2023 by the author(s). Published by Acadlore Publishing Services Limited, Hong Kong. This article is available for free download and can be reused and cited, provided that the original published version is credited, under the CC BY 4.0 license.