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Open Access
Research article

Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road

yullianty noorlaelasari1*,
ery radya juarti1,
ari rahman2,
anita juraida3
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, 40559 Bandung, Indonesia
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Pertamina, 12220 Jakarta, Indonesia
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Widyatama, 40125 Bandung, Indonesia
Journal of Urban Development and Management
|
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2023
|
Pages 84-94
Received: 05-09-2023,
Revised: 06-09-2023,
Accepted: 06-16-2023,
Available online: 06-29-2023
View Full Article|Download PDF

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study encompasses the evaluation of the Padaleunyi Toll Road's service performance, particularly in relation to Indonesia's established minimum service standards for toll roads. Given that the Padaleunyi Toll Road currently stands at mid-life in terms of its service duration, it is crucial to undertake this assessment to predict its remaining useful life. Criteria for measuring minimum service standards' fulfillment were diversified to cover the conditions of the toll road, average vehicular speed, accessibility, mobility, safety parameters, availability of rescue units and service assistance, environmental impact, and features of rest and service areas. The employed research methodology was based on the guidelines provided by Regulation 16/PRT/M/2014 from the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Findings indicate a compliance level of 66.04% to the minimum service standards, with the poorest indicator being the condition of the toll roads at a mere 14%. This study hopes to contribute by offering comprehensive insights into the current state and future prospects of the Padaleunyi Toll Road. It further highlights the importance of effective maintenance and operation strategies in prolonging its service life. Overall, the implications of this study can significantly enhance the planning and development process of toll roads, particularly in developing countries such as Indonesia, by incorporating key aspects like pavement quality, road geometric design, and efficient traffic management.

Keywords: Padaleunyi Toll Road, Compliance, Indonesian minimum service standards for toll roads, Cipularang toll road, Purbaleunyi toll road, Road conditions

1. Introduction

Toll roads serve as fundamental infrastructure, playing a significant role in regional economic growth in Indonesia. It has been observed that cities intersected by toll roads experience an enhanced economic growth rate, approximately 0.015 percent higher than cities devoid of such infrastructure. A shift in industrial locations towards toll gates, primarily to leverage their strategic placement, leads to increased regional revenue via taxation [1], [2], [3].

The condition of such infrastructure directly influences transportation mobility on toll roads, which in turn impacts the efficacy of goods distribution. An efficient distribution network is integral to the production sector, particularly in terms of production costs. Reduced costs typically result in heightened consumer purchasing power, consequently fostering regional progress [4], [5], [6].

Public roads that include toll roads are considered a part of the national road network system in Indonesia, and users are mandated to pay the stipulated toll rates. According to Government Regulation No. 15 of 2005 [7], the establishment of toll roads aims at promoting balanced and equitable development across regions, enhancing the efficiency of distribution services, and thus bolstering economic growth, especially in areas with high development rates.

Effective toll road management, reflected through the optimization of provided services, is imperative in enhancing community economic growth. As of June 2022, Indonesia boasts an operational toll road stretch of 2,500 km, distributed across 66 individual toll roads [8].

Among these, the Purbaleunyi toll road, one of Indonesia's longest toll roads, serves as a vital connection between the Jakarta Capital Region and the city of Bandung, along with its neighboring areas [9]. A detailed description of the Purbaleunyi toll road is provided in Table 1.

Table 1. Purbaleunyi toll road description

Parameter

Explanation

Segment

Padaleunyi, Cipularang

Length

123 km

Concession until year

2044

Year of operation

1990 (segment of Padaleunyi) & 2003 (segment of Cipularang)

Number of employee

538

Number of substations

92

Transaction system

Closed

Operation location

Padalarang, Cileunyi, Cikampek, Purwakarta

Table 1 reveals a concession period of 54 years for the Purbaleunyi toll road, with the Padaleunyi section operating for 26 years and the Cipularang section for 13 years. Thus, the Padaleunyi section is roughly at mid-concession life, while the Cipularang section is at a quarter of its total life span. The Purbaleunyi Toll Road is among the busiest toll roads, subjected to heavy traffic services and an annually increasing traffic volume. It's observed that the growth rate surpasses the initially projected traffic growth rate.

An imminent concern pertains to the potential degradation in the performance of the Purbaleunyi toll road, specifically the risk of not fulfilling the intended service period due to damages. A considerable rise in vehicle volume leading to increased road load has resulted in various levels of damage at several toll road locations, ranging from minor to severe, posing potential risks to road users. Reported damage types include cracks, undulations, and potholes of varying depths.

The growth in vehicle number within Indonesia has a substantial impact on toll road traffic. For instance, the Purbaleunyi Toll Road, due to its high average traffic volume growth per month, is currently Indonesia's highest traffic volume toll road. Consequently, it has a significant effect on the increase in traffic-related accidents, causing serious injuries [10], [11]. The average monthly traffic volume growth on the Purbaleunyi Toll Road is displayed in Table 2.

Table 2. Average traffic volume per month on Purbaleunyi toll road

Year

Vehicle volume (unit)

Annual growth rate (%)

2012

381.781

5.07

2013

401.119

4.28

2014

415.122

12.93

2015

549.587

Source: Jasa Marga, 2020 [9]

Indonesia's toll road tariffs have been deemed relatively expensive when compared to other Southeast Asian countries, according to Siswoyo [12], thereby demanding a commensurate level of quality. Periodic monitoring and evaluations based on the minimum service standards for toll roads are integral to maintaining the quality and ensuring that the roads remain in an optimal state. It is of importance, considering the yearly increase in vehicle volume, which may accelerate the rate of damage and potentially reduce the road's lifespan.

Given this situation, it is critical to evaluate the fulfillment of the Minimum Service Standards (SPM) for the Padaleunyi Toll Road. This research focuses specifically on the Padaleunyi Toll Road, taking into account its longer operational history compared to the Cipularang toll road.

2. Material and Methods

2.1 Data Collection

The study design adhered to a descriptive research framework. Evaluations were conducted on the condition of the toll road and equipment associated with the Padaleunyi Toll Road at the Purbaleunyi Branch of the Toll Road Provider. Data collection occurred between April and November 2016 through observation, interviews, and literature review. Observational procedures were conducted in an unrestricted environment, with investigators situated in the field to directly record, measure, and observe without limiting factors [13], [14].

Interviews served to determine the toll road's state, where questions regarding the Padaleunyi Toll Road management were posed. Semi-structured interviews were employed, affording both the interviewees and researchers the flexibility to reveal, clarify, and investigate based on the existing facts of the Padaleunyi Toll Road. The secondary data utilized in the literature reviews comprised documents pertinent to the Padaleunyi Toll Road. The data collected are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. Research methodology of data collection

Technique

Data

Observation

Condition of facilities and infrastructure

1. Data location, dimensions/sections, and drainage conditions

2. Data location, length, and condition of curb, median, guardrail

3. Data on the number of signs, road markings, and guide posts and their condition

4. Data on the number of public street lighting, anti-glare, right-of-way fences and safety fences and their condition

Calculating daily traffic volume from each toll exit

1. Number of vehicles served per vehicle class per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

2. Number of normal vehicle queues average per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

3. Number of vehicle queues in congested conditions average per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

Field measurement and testing

1. Measurement of road pavement roughness (Mu-Meter) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

2. Measurement ruggedness pavement (NAASRA Roughness meters) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

3. Measurement of normal average travel speed per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

4. Measurement of average transaction speed per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

Interview

1. Manager of Traffic Management

2. Manager of Maintenance Service Management

3. Operator section to identify the type of damage to the Padaleunyi Toll Road

Literature studies

1. Road pavement roughness measurement data (Mu-Meter) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

2. Measurement data ruggedness pavement (NAASRA Roughness meters) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

3. Drainage data (location, length, dimension/section, condition) and type of maintenance performed

4. Location data, length and condition of curb, median, guardrail and the type of maintenance performed

5. Normal average travel speed data per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

6. Data number of vehicle served per vehicle class per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

7. Average transaction speed data per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

8. Data Number of normal vehicle queues on average per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

9. Data Number of vehicle queues in congested conditions average per Padaleunyi Toll Booth

10. Data on the number of highway patrol vehicles and their conditions, as well as the average time for handling Traffic Barriers (from information received to the scene) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

11. Data on the number of cranes and their conditions, the number of incidents served by official and free cranes, as well as the towing handling time (from information received to the scene) per Padaleunyi Toll Road section

12. Data on the number of signs, road markings, and guide posts and their condition

13. Data on the number of public street lighting, anti- glare, right-of-way fences and safety fences and their condition

14. Data on the number of accidents and the number of victims of accidents

15. Measurement of daily volume of vehicles passing through toll exits along the Padaleunyi Toll Road section

16. Minimum Service Standards Report of Toll Road Provider at Purbaleunyi Branch

2.2 Sample Collection

For this investigation, both the population and sample were the length of the Padaleunyi Toll Road (excluding the interchange) encompassing multiple sections. These sections, managed directly by the Purbaleunyi Branch of the Toll Road Provider, were used to ascertain the population's character and nature. Each segment of the Padaleunyi Toll Road was sampled, with the toll road subdivided into 200 m inspection segments for the purpose of simplification and in correspondence with the installed hectometer pegs along the Padaleunyi Toll Road section every 200 m. A 20% sample of the population was taken from each segment, thus the estimated sample size for each proportionate segment is represented in Table 4.

Table 4. Data on the length of the Padaleunyi Toll Road

No

Area

Length(km)

Segment

Number of sample segments

1

Padalarang - Pasteur

6

30

6

2

Pasteur - Pasir Koja

5

25

5

3

Pasir Koja - Kopo

3

15

3

4

Kopo - M. Toha

3

15

3

5

M. Toha - Buah Batu

4

20

4

6

Buah Batu – Cileunyi

14

70

14

Total

35

175

35

3. Data Processing

The classification of damage type adhered strictly to the criteria outlined in Minister of Public Works and Housing Regulation No.13/PRT/M/2011 Concerning Procedures for Road Maintenance and Surveillance [15]. The gravimetric methodology was employed to quantify damage, pursuant to Eq. (1). This procedure incorporated both field data collection and a meticulous review of relevant literature from preceding studies. Special attention was given to the Padaleunyi section during the data collection process. A comprehensive overview of the data collection methods utilized is provided in Table 5.

Table 5. Measurement method for data collection

No

Service substance

Measurement method

1

Toll road condition

Roughness

Ruggedness

Absence of hole, rutting, and crack

Drainage, median, roadside

Mu-Meter

NAASRA Roughness Meter

Calculation of the area of damage

Observation

2

Average travel speed

Secondary data (report)

3

Mobility

Secondary data (report)

4

Safety

Secondary data (report)

5

Environment

Secondary data (report)

6

Aid/rescue unit and service assistance

Secondary data (report) and observation

7

Accessibility

Secondary data (report) and observation

8

Rest and service area

Secondary data (report) and observation

Furthermore, the processed data was summarized so that the results of measuring damage weight and the types of damage in the Padaleunyi Toll Road component can be estimated.

$\text { Damage weight }=\frac{\text { Number of component damage }}{\text { Total number of components }} \times 100 \%$
(1)

4. Result and Discussion

The damaging weight of the Padaleunyi Toll Road components was used to assess their condition in relation to the toll road minimum service standards. These standards serve as a benchmark for toll road business entities to provide essential services to toll road users (Regulation of the Minister of Public Works and Housing Number 16/PRT/M/2014 Concerning Minimum Service Standards for Toll Roads [16]). Each criterion within these standards was analyzed to determine its fulfillment. Figure 1 presents a summary of the percentage of criteria fulfillment for the Padaleunyi section.

Figure 1. Percentage of criteria fulfillment
Table 6. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for toll roads condition

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

1

Toll Road Condition

Benchmark

Indicator

Main pavement

Roughness

>0.33 mm

0.62 mu

0.63 mu

Fulfilled

Ruggedness

Rigid pavement and flexible pavement (|R| 4.0 m/km)

3.47 m/km

3.38 m/km

Fulfilled

Absence of hole

100%

97.37%

Not fulfilled

Rutting

No rutting 100%

98.94%

Not fulfilled

Crack

No crack 100%

99.08%

Not fulfilled

Drainage

Absence of deposit

Functions and benefits 100%

81.08%

Not fulfilled

Channel cross-section

Functions and benefits 100%

99.08%

Not fulfilled

Median

Curb

Functions and benefits 100%

67.74%

Not fulfilled

Median concrete barrier (MCB)

Functions and benefits 100%

96.88%

Not fulfilled

Guard rail

Functions and benefits 100%

81.82%

Not fulfilled

Wire rope

Functions and benefits 100%

None

Not fulfilled

Roadside

Absence of hole

100%

99.07%

Not fulfilled

Rutting

No rutting 100%

98.39%

Not fulfilled

Crack

No crack 100%

97.59%

Not fulfilled

Figure 1 depicts the percentage of criteria fulfillment for the toll road minimum service standards in the Padaleunyi section. Among the eight criteria, only four met the standards in their entirety: average travel speed, mobility, environment, rest, and service area. The criterion with the lowest percentage of standard fulfillment was toll road conditions, meeting only 2 out of the 14 benchmarks. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for Toll roads condition as can be seen in Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12, and Table 13. Thus, the achievement of minimum service standards for toll road conditions reached a mere 14% of the expected level. Specifically, the only criteria that were met were the roughness and roughness of the main pavement. Conversely, the requirements of having no holes, rutting, and cracks on the main road pavement, as well as proper roadside conditions, were not fulfilled. Furthermore, improvements are needed in all drainage conditions. The median condition, encompassing the curb, median concrete barrier (MCB), guard rail, and wire rope, also fell short of meeting the standards. An example illustrating the presence of cracks and pothole damage on the main road and shoulder pavement is showcased in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

The condition of the main line pavement exhibits variability, with some sections being overlaid and in excellent condition while others could benefit from further enhancement. The road surface has experienced significant wear and tear, despite the application of patches to many areas. Numerous cracks, grooves, longitudinal cracks, and holes are present, with longitudinal cracks being particularly common in the joint area between adjacent pavement layers. According to Wahidin [17], both newly built roads and newly restored roads (overlays) experience a decrease in structural function over time. Additionally, damage can occur due to the interaction of friction between vehicles and the road pavement, such as sudden braking at high speeds [17], [18]. Such damage weakens the asphalt pavement structure, leading to pavement deformation and the subsequent occurrence of pavement roughness. The presence of pavement roughness negatively impacts vehicle performance and traffic safety.

Figure 2. Damage at km 128
Figure 3. Longitudinal cracks and holes in the main line pavement at km 135
Table 7. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for average travel speed

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

2

Average travel speed

Benchmark

Indicator

Average travel speed in normal condition

More than 40 km/h (inner-city)

More than 60 km/h (outer-city)

61.31 km/h

-

Fulfilled

-

Table 8. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for mobility

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

3

Mobility

Benchmark

Indicator

Traffic problem handling speed

30 minutes per observation cycle

Maximum 30 minutes per service unit required

20.92 minutes

7.10 minutes

Fulfilled

Fulfilled

Handling of stalled vehicles

Towing to the nearest repair shop using an official and free crane service (inner-city)

100% (Towing of stalled vehicle: 1,048 ×)

Fulfilled

Highway patrol handling speed

Towing to the nearest workshop Towing to the nearest repair shop using an official and free crane service (outer-city)

-

-

Crane vehicle handling speed

Handling and enforcement of traffic obstacle

Arrive at the scene within 30 minutes

22.03 minutes

18.75 minutes

Fulfilled

Fulfilled

Table 9. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for safety

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance with minimum standards

4

Safety

Benchmark

Indicator

Signage

Total 100% and effectiveness > 80%

Total 1,743 unit; Mean 97.30%

Fulfilled

Road markings

Total 100% and effectiveness > 80%

Total 35,885 m; Mean 98.50%

Fulfilled

Guide post

Total 100% and effectiveness > 80%

Total 17,982 unit; Mean 85.57%

Fulfilled

Kilometer sign

Functions and benefits 100%

Total 42 pcs; Mean 98.48%

Fulfilled

Hectormeter sign

Functions and benefits 100%

Total 336 pcs; Mean 88.19%

Fulfilled

Other facilities

Public street lighting

Lights on

Total 592 units; Mean 95.25%

Not fulfilled

Anti-glare

Availability 100%

None

Not fulfilled

Right-of-way fences

Availability 100%

Total 33,021 units; Mean 96.64%

Not fulfilled

Safety fences

Availability 100%

Total 48,295 units; Mean 97.69%

Not fulfilled

Accident handling

Free evacuation to hospital

Free evacuation to towing pool

Accident total 53x

Accident total 112x

Fulfilled

Fulfilled

Table 10. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for environment

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

5

Environment

Benchmark

Indicator

Cleanliness (inside toll Right-of-way, operational office, and toll booth)

No trash, well taken care of, clean

100%

Fulfilled

Plants

Does not interfere with toll road functions

100%

Fulfilled

Grasses

Grass height < 30 cm

100%

Fulfilled

Regarding safety criteria, compliance was achieved to a rate of only 64%, ranking second lowest among the evaluated criteria. The criteria for signs, road markings, guide posts, kilometer benchmarks, and hectometer benchmarks were met. However, the criteria for public street lighting, anti-glare measures, right-of-way fences, and safety fences were not fulfilled. Public street lighting on the Padaleunyi Toll Road is limited to a few areas, such as the office, toll booths, and selected turns. Furthermore, some of the installed lights are non-functional and await replacement. This condition renders toll roads vulnerable to security and safety risks, particularly during nighttime travel. The extensive damage to the guard rail, despite its primary function of minimizing collision risks and preventing vehicles from falling from heights [19], further exacerbates safety concerns. Figure 4 demonstrates the absence of a right-of-way fence limiting pedestrian access to the toll road, resulting in the use of this location for picking up and dropping off bus passengers. Such circumstances increase the likelihood of accidents on the highway.

This research aligns with the findings of study [20], emphasizing the critical role of toll road conditions and safety in enhancing overall safety on toll roads. Notably, the Cipularang toll road, included in the Padaleunyi Toll Road sample, stands out as one of Indonesia's most accident-prone toll roads [21]. Consequently, addressing infrastructure damage and ensuring prompt repairs to toll road facilities become essential measures for meeting toll road development criteria. Regular monitoring and evaluation of toll road performance are also necessary to maintain satisfactory operational standards. Given that the Padaleunyi Toll Road has now reached half its planned lifespan, urgent actions are needed to improve toll road conditions, including patching potholes and cracks, to support the safety of toll road users. Additionally, immediate attention should be given to enhancing road markings by rectifying blurred or faded markings. Ensuring the provision of effective rescue and emergency services is of paramount importance [20], [22].

Table 11. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for Aid/Rescue unit and service assistance

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance with minimum standards

6

Aid/Rescue unit and service assistance

Benchmark

Indicator

Ambulance

1 unit per 25 km or at least 1 unit if<25 km (equipped with first aid standards and paramedics)

2 units

Fulfilled

Towing vehicles

Average daily traffic>100,000 vehicles per day: 1 unit per 5 km or at least 1 unit if<5 km, if more than 1 towing unit is available, a tow with a capacity of 25 tons must be available at least 1 unit

6 units

Not fulfilled

Highway patrol (PJR)

Average daily traffic>100,000 vehicles per day: 1 unit per 15 km or at least 1 unit if<15 km

Average daily traffic>100,000 vehicles per day: 1 unit per 20 km or at least 1 unit if<20 km

6 units

Fulfilled

Toll road patrol (Operator)

1 unit per 15 km or minimum 2 units if >15 km

3 units

Fulfilled

Rescue vehicle

1 unit per 50 km or minimum 1 unit if<50 km (equipped with rescue equipment)

2 units

Fulfilled

Information system (should be read clearly and without giving glare)

Traffic condition information and communication (banners, boards, virtual message sign (VMS), toll info phone number)

9 units

Fulfilled

Table 12. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for accessibility

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

7

Accessibility

Benchmark

Indicator

Average transaction speed

Max 5 seconds

Max 9 seconds

4.02 seconds

7.89 seconds

Fulfilled

Fulfilled

Automatic toll gate

Average transaction speed

Max 4 seconds

Max 5 seconds

3.87 seconds

4.62 seconds

Fulfilled

Fulfilled

Number of vehicle queues

Maximum 10 vehicles per substation

More than 10 vehicles per substation

Not fulfilled

Table 13. Comparison results with minimum service standards of toll roads for rest and service area

No

Service substance

Minimum service standard

Measurement results (Mean)

Compliance

with minimum standards

8

Rest and service area

Benchmark

Indicator

Road condition

All road surfaces at the rest area. No holes, cracks and breaks

100%

Fulfilled

On/Off Ramp

The road surface at the entrance and exit of the rest area. No holes, cracks and breaks

100%

Fulfilled

Toilet

Operational 100%, clean, free

100%

Fulfilled

Vehicle parking

Operational 100%, clean, in order, free

Forbidden to park on the on/off ramp

100%

Fulfilled

Illumination

Operational 100%

100%

Fulfilled

Refueling station

Operational 100%

100%

Fulfilled

Public workshop

Operational 100%

100%

Fulfilled

Place to eat and to drink

Operational 100%

100%

Fulfilled

Figure 4. Absence of right-of-way fence

5. Conclusion

The fulfillment of the minimum service standards for the Padaleunyi Toll Road was evaluated, encompassing a measurement of 53 criteria. Out of these criteria, only 35 met the established standards, resulting in a fulfillment rate of 66.04%. It is evident that the physical condition of the toll road requires significant improvement in order to achieve the minimum service standards. This improvement is essential to enhance the comfort, safety, and cost-effectiveness for toll road users, including reduced vehicle operating costs and time savings. Consequently, it is imperative to formulate a prompt corrective action plan to enhance the overall performance of the toll road.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Noorlaelasari, Y., Juarti, E. R., Rahman, A., & Juraida, A. (2023). Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road. J. Urban Dev. Manag., 2(2), 84-94. https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020203
Y. Noorlaelasari, E. R. Juarti, A. Rahman, and A. Juraida, "Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road," J. Urban Dev. Manag., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 84-94, 2023. https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020203
@research-article{Noorlaelasari2023AssessingCT,
title={Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road},
author={Yullianty Noorlaelasari and Ery Radya Juarti and Ari Rahman and Anita Juraida},
journal={Journal of Urban Development and Management},
year={2023},
page={84-94},
doi={https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020203}
}
Yullianty Noorlaelasari, et al. "Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road." Journal of Urban Development and Management, v 2, pp 84-94. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020203
Yullianty Noorlaelasari, Ery Radya Juarti, Ari Rahman and Anita Juraida. "Assessing Compliance to Minimum Service Standards of Indonesian Toll Roads: An Examination of the Padaleunyi Toll Road." Journal of Urban Development and Management, 2, (2023): 84-94. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/judm020203
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