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Open Access
Research article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings

pramod sinha1,
abhishek agarwal2*,
charuvila rajendran rejeesh3
1
Fixed Term Academic, Department of Civil Engineering, University of South Africa, 1709 Pretoria, South Africa
2
Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Vermont State University, 05061 Vermont, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Institute of Science and Technology, 683577 Kerala, India
Journal of Sustainability for Energy
|
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2023
|
Pages 50-67
Received: 04-22-2023,
Revised: 05-24-2023,
Accepted: 06-07-2023,
Available online: 06-19-2023
View Full Article|Download PDF

Abstract:

Understanding the response of buildings to wind loads is critical, as these forces can generate significant pressure and suction, potentially leading to structural failure if overlooked. This research was focused on examining the effects of openings on triangular-shaped buildings when subjected to high wind load conditions. Utilizing CAD modeling and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, the analysis was executed through the ANSYS simulation package. Subsequent Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) studies were conducted to ascertain shear stress and lateral deformation. The studies encompassed building models both with and without openings, with the evaluation of induced pressure and velocity. The resultant drag on buildings incorporating openings was discovered to be 6679N lower than those without openings. Furthermore, an analysis employing M25 concrete indicated a 33.13$3 \%$ reduction in lateral deformation in buildings with openings as compared to those without. For buildings constructed with M30 concrete, a 32.17$3 \%$ decrease in lateral deformation was observed. Despite the informative findings, it should be recognized that the investigation was confined to a particular range of wind load conditions and did not consider extreme scenarios. Dynamic wind effects and long-term structural behavior were not included in the current analysis. Therefore, while this study elucidates the importance of wind load analysis and structural reinforcement for maintaining building stability, further research is warranted. Such future investigations should consider broader simulation models, encompassing diverse building shapes and wind load conditions, and account for additional influential factors.

Keywords: Wind load, Structural integrity, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Fluid-structure interaction, Building resilience, Triangular-shaped buildings, M30 concrete, M25 concrete

1. Introduction

Rising incidents of severe weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones, and strong windstorms underscore the increasing imperative for resilient and durable infrastructure. The forceful impact of wind on building structures worldwide presents a substantial challenge, jeopardizing the safety and stability of edifices if not aptly addressed during design and construction phases. A consequence of land scarcity in urban spaces is the proliferation of multi-story buildings, specifically high-rise towers. Although they maximize available space effectively, these structures grapple with unique structural problems including stiffness, lateral displacement, and susceptibility to lateral loads, particularly wind loads. Therefore, understanding the intricate interplay between these variables is paramount.

Wind loads, essentially the forces that wind exerts on a structure, have significant bearings on the design and performance of a building. They have direct implications on structural safety and stability, influencing the design and construction of structural members and connections. Beyond this, wind loads play a crucial role in shaping the performance of the building envelope, including cladding systems, windows, and doors, from the perspective of water resistance, air leakage, and thermal efficiency. In terms of occupant comfort and safety, they affect factors such as indoor air quality, noise levels, and vibration. Therefore, adhering to building codes and standards, which encompass wind load provisions, is vital to ensure structural integrity and regulatory compliance.

A commonly adopted approach for investigating the aerodynamic behavior of building prototypes and validating design methodologies is wind tunnel testing, as shown in Figure 1. Experiments of this kind offer invaluable insights into the intricate flow patterns and pressures experienced by buildings under diverse wind conditions, assisting in the development of accurate wind load models.

Figure 1. Wind tunnel testing of building prototype [1]

The execution of wind load analysis is indispensable in the design process for optimizing the efficiency of the building envelope, ensuring structural stability and security, enhancing occupant comfort and safety, and adhering to building regulations. This complex task, which requires the expertise of professionals, incorporates principles of structural engineering, fluid dynamics, and construction science to accurately assess and quantify wind loads, their distribution across the building, and their potential effects on the structure. The insights derived from wind load analysis empower designers and engineers to make informed decisions on structural design, material selection, and construction techniques, ensuring that buildings are equipped to withstand the expected wind loads throughout their intended service life. The overarching objective is to create resilient and sustainable structures capable of standing up to the challenges posed by wind and other environmental forces, guaranteeing the safety and well-being of occupants and the long-term durability of the built environment. The study by Zhang et al. [2] underlines the importance of accurately estimating heat dissipation from external walls in space heating applications, offering equations for calculating heat dissipation coefficients and presenting a methodology to enhance the accuracy of estimated heating loads. The study found that wind speed has a more pronounced effect on the thermal energy dissipation flux at the outer surfaces of an isolated low-rise building than wind direction [2].

In the realm of structural engineering, an extensive body of research has sought to discern the seismic and wind behaviors of high-rise structures. Notably, an exploration by Jia and Duan [3] into a twelve-story frame-shear wall building's performance under the strains of seismic and wind phenomena revealed intriguing insights. Located in a coastal city of China, this building was scrutinized under the load code for building design. By adopting an equivalent static load in place of the dynamic wind load, the research was carried out. It was found that during an 8-degree earthquake, the movements of the base isolators mirrored those observed under wind speeds between 30 to 50 m/s. Furthermore, it was noticed that a wind velocity of 70 m/s generated displacement greater than that during an 8-degree earthquake, despite the rarity of such wind speeds.

An alternate approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical method, was employed by Chen et al. [4] to devise a model of a building and a tower crane, investigating varying lateral and longitudinal spacing ratios. This study succeeded in acquiring wind load coefficients for the tower crane, both in the presence and absence of the surrounding building. Results highlighted the building's interference effect on the tower crane under varying spacing ratios and wind directions, predominantly demonstrating a shielding effect. It was found that the distribution pattern of the interference factor along the mast section's height adhered to a cubic function for wind directions of 0°, 30°, and 60°. However, in contrast, it followed a quadratic function for wind directions of 120° and 150°.

Given the burgeoning construction of high-rise structures worldwide, the influence of wind load on such buildings has come under increased scrutiny. An investigation by Jamaluddeen and Banerjee [5] utilized ETABS Software 2016 to analyze wind loads, with buildings classified based on their height and varying geometrical shapes. The vulnerability of these structures to wind due to their position and height was central to their research.

Simultaneously, Du et al. [6] examined the effects of a single cross-shaped super-high-rise building, as well as a proposed group of four similar buildings. By studying different distances and wind directions, a multitude of parameters were evaluated. It was discovered that the wind direction had a greater influence than the spacing between buildings on wind pressure and base wind parameters. Furthermore, the building's equivalent base wind's impact was found to be swayed by the wind interference effect.

In parallel, Mohapatra and Rath [7] concentrated their research on the modeling and analysis of square or rectangular buildings of 30, 40, and 50 stories, applying wind loads to their study. They used both the static method and the Gust Effect Factor (GEF) method, according to IS: 875 (Part 3) - 1987, to determine these loads. The natural frequencies of these structures were ascertained using STAAD. Pro V8i SS6, a structural analysis and design software. This study set out to comprehend the correlation between wind loading and the resulting natural frequencies.

In a novel approach, Xue et al. [8] utilized wind-induced displacement and acceleration responses to identify structural states, parameters, and unknown wind loads from incomplete measurements. Their method was validated through numerical simulations on a ten-story building and wind tunnel testing on a 234m tall building, providing invaluable insights into practical applications.

Elias et al. [9] embarked on a study of a benchmark building equipped with tuned mass dampers (TMDs) to reduce wind and earthquake-induced dynamic responses. A comparison of multiple TMD (MTMD) schemes with single TMD (STMD) configurations was conducted. It was concluded that distributed TMDs effectively controlled acceleration for tall structures under wind and earthquake forces.

The work of Bingöl [10] compared different methods for estimating Weibull characteristics using wind speed data gathered from a 101 m Mast equipped with cup anemometers. The data spanned a full year and had a high recovery rate of over 99$\%$. The findings of this study underscored the difficulties faced in parameter estimation due to the high occurrence of low wind speeds. Finally, a study by Cui and Caracoglia [11] applied a generalized aerodynamic formulation to analyze the wind-induced dynamic response of tall buildings. This research captured complex structural motion and accounted for multi-directional wind load effects, providing a universal formula for the dynamic analysis of bluff bodies, such as tall buildings.

These diverse methodologies, from equivalent static loads to numerical modeling, reveal the multifaceted nature of wind load analysis on structures. The complexity of predicting wind patterns around buildings, particularly tall structures, necessitates continuous research to ensure the safety and sustainability of our built environment. However, it remains evident that despite the structural complexity and the uncertainty of wind data, accurate prediction and modeling of wind loads can enhance structural design and lead to more resilient buildings.

This investigation delves into the intricate dynamics of fluid-structure interaction in the realm of high-rise architecture subjected to wind loading. This exploration aims to elucidate the inherent dynamism and stability that ensues from these complex interplays between fluid flow (wind) and structural components. Significantly, the investigation aspires to inform a nuanced understanding of how fluid-structure interaction impacts structural integrity, performance, and safety of high-rise structures.

Four specific objectives provide the backbone of this research:

This investigation delves into the intricate dynamics of fluid-structure interaction in the realm of high-rise architecture subjected to wind loading. This exploration aims to elucidate the inherent dynamism and stability that ensues from these complex interplays between fluid flow (wind) and structural components. Significantly, the investigation aspires to inform a nuanced understanding of how fluid-structure interaction impacts structural integrity, performance, and safety of high-rise structures.

Four specific objectives provide the backbone of this research:

(1) Execution of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis on a high-story edifice devoid of openings.

(2) Initiation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis on a high-story edifice encompassing openings.

(3) Execution of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis on a high-story edifice fabricated with M25 grade concrete.

(4) Implementation of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis on a high-story building constructed with M30 grade concrete.

This study situates its emphasis on the fluid-structure interaction phenomena within the context of high-rise buildings subjected to wind loads. It navigates the complex fluid flow patterns around such structures, taking into account factors such as vortex shedding, turbulence, and boundary layer effects. This research aims to culminate in a richer understanding of fluid-structure interactions within high-rise constructions, thus making a significant contribution to wind engineering knowledge and fostering the development of robust and resilient architectural designs.

Through a systematic approach, involving Computer-Aided Design (CAD) modeling and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, this research aims to capture and analyze the geometrical complexities and airflow patterns surrounding high-rise structures. This foundational knowledge is then employed in the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) studies, where the dynamic interaction between the structural components of the building and the wind forces is assessed comprehensively. These studies are expected to yield pivotal insights into the distribution of shear stress and lateral deformation within the structure.

The implications of the findings from this study are expected to reverberate through the field of architecture and engineering, particularly those working on the design and construction of high-rise buildings. The study aims to engender an enhanced understanding of structural behavior under wind loads, and the consequent design considerations that must be taken into account. It is expected that these findings will enable architects and engineers to create safer and more efficient buildings, therefore ensuring the well-being of occupants and the surrounding communities.

In essence, this investigation stands as a crucial step towards decoding the behavior of high-rise buildings under the influence of high wind loads. It endeavors to shed light on the effects of openings on the structural response, thus paving the way for advancements in design methodologies and enhancing the sphere of structural safety. Through the synergistic application of CAD modeling, CFD simulation, and FSI studies, the study is projected to provide transformative insights into the dynamics of high-rise buildings under wind loading.

2. Methodology

The methodology employed in this study was based on the use of ANSYS simulation package to conduct Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a high-rise building structure [12]. These simulations encompassed a number of key stages, including the creation of the CAD model, meshing, definition of boundary conditions, and finally, the solution stage.

The CAD model of the building was designed with utmost precision to serve as an accurate geometrical representation of the structure in the virtual simulation environment. This meticulous approach to CAD modeling facilitated a realistic analysis of the structure. Developed using CATIA v5 design software, the CAD model was subsequently imported into the ANSYS design modeler, as presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2. CAD model of building

A 120m high triangular building structure, containing 40 stories [13], was encapsulated within a specially designed enclosure (Figure 3). The enclosure was constructed with specific dimensions to ensure complete coverage and protection of the building. The assembled configuration of the building within the enclosure is depicted in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Enclosure dimensions
Figure 4. CAD model of building with enclosure

The CAD model of the enclosure was discretized into elements and nodes [14]. This step was carried out with a particular focus on curvature effects, leading to the creation of an accurate geometrical representation of the enclosure. The results of the discretization process are highlighted in Figure 5, revealing an intricate network of elements and nodes. The meshed model of the enclosure encompassed 195,821 elements and 37,902 nodes, leading to a highly detailed model that allowed for precise calculations and analysis.

Boundary conditions were defined to mimic real-world conditions and simulate the effects of wind loads on the building structure. These conditions incorporated parameters such as wind speed and flow direction, providing a realistic portrayal of environmental conditions.

The solution stage of the simulation, performed using ANSYS, involved solving the governing equations for fluid flow and pressure. Through this process, vital insights into the forces and pressures exerted on the building structure were obtained.

In conclusion, this multi-step CFD simulation methodology facilitated a comprehensive understanding of the building's structural response to wind loading. It serves as a pivotal tool in identifying potential design issues, optimizing building design, and ensuring the safety and structural integrity of high-rise buildings.

Figure 5. Meshed model of building with enclosure

The computational domain, subjected to specific loads and boundary conditions, sought to emulate real-world conditions, as represented in Figure 6. Such boundary conditions proved crucial in simulating wind effects and analyzing the building's consequent response accurately. The specified boundary conditions encapsulated parameters such as wind speed, turbulence intensity, and flow regime definition, contributing to the credibility of the simulation.

Figure 6. Loads and boundary conditions

Wind speed as a parameter represented the force of incoming wind, external to the building. The consideration of turbulence intensity accounted for the irregular, fluctuating nature of wind flow. Lastly, the definition of flow regime established the type of flow - laminar or turbulent - that dictated the wind's behavior around the building.

A wind speed of 47 m/s was introduced to the computational domain, aiming to reflect the force of wind flow authentically, as shown in Figure 7. Turbulence intensity was set at 5$\%$, integrated into the model to account for wind turbulence. For the simulation, the k-omega model, known for its widespread application in turbulent flow simulations, was chosen.

A crucial role was played by solver control data in setting up the simulation. An RMS residual target value was set to 0.0001, indicating the desired convergence level for the solution. This value signifies an acceptable threshold for residual errors, thereby ensuring accurate results. Furthermore, the interpolation scheme was configured to the “upwind” type, renowned for minimizing numerical errors associated with interpolation and effectively capturing flow variables.

Through the utilization of these parameters, the study sought to thoroughly examine the building's reaction to high wind conditions. The final RMS residual plots, resultant from the simulation process, are presented in Figure 8.

This revised text adheres to the requisite standards of linguistic sophistication, passive voice usage, and academic appropriateness, as demanded by top-tier academic journals. The structure and logical flow of the text have been adjusted to meet the requirements of a Methodology section, while ensuring the retention of all original citations.

Figure 7. Domain loads and boundary conditions
Figure 8. RMS residual values

The convergence analysis of the simulation, presented visually via RMS residual plots, serves as an indicator of solution precision, wherein an RMS residual value below 0.0001 was established as the convergence criterion. Continual monitoring of these RMS residual values throughout the simulation facilitated their analysis. As the simulation evolved, a decreasing trend in the RMS residual values signaled convergence towards the intended level of accuracy. Such decrease is visually exemplified by the plots, indicative of the simulation's attainment of the set convergence standard. When RMS residual values were observed below the prescribed 0.0001 threshold, the simulation's successful achievement of the desired degree of accuracy and reliability was affirmed [15], [16]. This convergence establishes the results as trustworthy and accurate representations of the building's response under simulated wind conditions. As a tool for convergence assessment, the RMS residual plots reveal the simulation process' capacity to yield reliable and accurate outcomes, which in turn, can inform further analysis and evaluation, offering crucial insights into the building's behavior in the given wind environment.

The building's CAD design was imported into ANSYS Design Modeler for a comprehensive Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Imported model of the building for FSI analysis

Meshing of the building model was undertaken using fine sizing and adaptive functions, employing hexahedral elements (Figure 10). The resulting mesh, consisting of 1272 elements and 766 nodes, serves to accurately depict the building's geometry and structural behavior. This detailed mesh facilitates precision in calculations and simulations, capturing the nuanced responses of the building under different loading conditions. It acts as a reliable computational framework, predicting fluid-structure interaction phenomena and providing insightful results. The FSI analysis, by virtue of such a detailed mesh, achieves high degrees of accuracy and fidelity, contributing valuable insights into the performance and behavior of the building.

Figure 10. Meshed model of building

Subsequent to meshing, the model was set up through the application of appropriate boundary conditions, which play a vital role in faithfully simulating the building's behavior under diverse loading conditions. Fixed support was imposed at the building's base to guarantee stability and counter any unwanted movement. Additionally, an imported pressure load was applied, representing the external forces exerted on the structure. These boundary conditions establish a realistic simulation environment that closely aligns with real-world situations. Such conditions allow the analysis to accurately gauge the structural response and evaluate the building's performance under various load scenarios. This comprehensive methodology enables an in-depth understanding of the building's behavior, informing the optimization of design and ensuring its structural integrity and safety. Figure 11 displays the imported pressure load applied to the building structure, emphasizing the different magnitudes of pressure.

Figure 11. Imported pressure load on the building

This investigation applies a Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation to analyze a building's reaction to wind-induced forces comprehensively, where the dynamic relationship between the structure and fluid (air) is accounted for. FSI simulation's worthiness stems from its capacity to offer insights into the building's behavior under wind-loading conditions. Both lateral deformation and shear stresses of the building structure are evaluated through the simulation.

The scope of horizontal displacement or bending that the structure undergoes is elucidated via lateral deformation analysis. This knowledge is fundamental in evaluating the structural integrity of the building and planning requisite measures to minimize excessive deformation. Concurrently, the assessment of shear stresses pinpoints the regions of the structure bearing concentrated internal forces. Recognizing the distribution of shear stresses aids engineers in rectifying potential weak points, refining the structural design, and confirming that the building can resist the imposed loads.

Under wind loading conditions, the structural response of the building is revealed by the combination of FSI simulation and the evaluation of lateral deformation and shear stresses. This information is vital in optimizing design, improving structural performance, and guaranteeing the safety and longevity of the building.

To certify the reliability and precision of the simulation outcomes, a grid independence test was conducted as an integral part of the analysis. The results of this test, featuring the variation of mesh density and the corresponding maximum induced pressure, are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1. Grid independence test
Number of ElementsPressure (Pa)
356871358
369851360
376841361.8
379021362

The aim of the grid independence test is to pinpoint the optimal mesh density that captures essential flow features while delivering consistent and reliable results [17]. Through the systematic increase in mesh density, the simulation was repeated, and the maximum induced pressure was evaluated for each instance. To identify the optimal mesh density, several simulations were conducted using progressively coarser meshes while keeping other parameters constant. The results from these simulations were compared to discern the point at which further mesh refinement ceased to substantially affect the solution. The solution was considered grid-independent at this juncture, signifying that the chosen mesh density was sufficient to yield accurate results without incurring excessive computational cost.

The chosen mesh density, based on the outcomes of the grid independence test, ensured that solution accuracy was preserved while optimizing computational resources. This method assures that the mesh employed in subsequent simulations achieves a suitable equilibrium between accuracy and computational efficiency.

3. Results and Discussion

The Results section may be divided into subsections. It should describe the results concisely and precisely, provide their interpretation, and draw possible conclusions from the results.

3.1 Style Settings
3.1.1 Headings

In this comprehensive analysis, a robust examination of pressure distribution, drag force, and velocity distribution was executed via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The primary focus was placed on a building devoid of openings and endowed with sharp edges. Findings illuminated the induced pressure's magnitude on various building facets, with the windward side presenting a peak of 1362Pa, as illustrated in Figure 12. It was discerned that the leeward side demonstrated reduced pressures, thereby accentuating the potential impact of sharp edges on wind-induced forces.

Figure 12. Induced pressure on building

The velocity distribution plot, depicted in Figure 13, offers a visual exploration of the intricate airflow patterns around the building. The velocity demonstrated highest magnitudes at the windward side (28 m/s) and the top region of the structure (54 m/s). In contrast, the leeward side registered a considerable decrease in velocity, approximately 14.56 m/s, suggesting a sheltering effect consequential to the building's configuration.

Figure 13. Velocity distribution plot across the plane

Comparison of the pressure distribution data gathered from the conducted simulations with existing literature [18] revealed significant alignment, hence establishing the credibility and accuracy of the study. This congruity augments the support for the obtained data, elucidating the value of such a comprehensive understanding of the velocity distribution plot.

From an engineering perspective, the findings hold potential implications for building construction. The insights gained from the pressure and velocity distribution patterns contribute to an improved understanding of wind forces on a building’s performance and structural integrity. The data supports better-informed decisions concerning structural design, natural ventilation enhancement, and harnessing of wind energy. Further highlighting the intricate association between wind dynamics and building geometry, the study underscores the importance of accurate assessment of velocity and pressure distribution in the development of resilient buildings.

Utilizing advanced simulation methodologies, it is possible to design buildings that can efficaciously withstand wind loads, ensuring the comfort and safety of the occupants. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) studies carried out in the research process contributed to obtaining a shear stress distribution plot for the building structure made of M30 concrete and devoid of openings, as shown in Figure 14.

Collectively, these findings emphasize the power of meticulous analysis, and the use of advanced simulation techniques, in understanding the impact of wind dynamics on building design and performance. They also underscore the value of such research in advancing knowledge in the field of building construction and design.

Figure 14. Shear stress distribution plot on building without opening with M30 concrete

Upon thorough evaluation, the shear stress distribution exhibited notable concentrations at the base of the structure, as visually represented in Figure 14. The magnitudes observed herein reached an approximate peak of 0.0108MPa, as evidenced by the distinctive red regions. The implications of such findings underline the foundation's vital function in shouldering and dispersing shear forces efficiently, a crucial factor in preserving structural integrity and stability.

Figure 15 presents a lateral deformation distribution plot for a building structure void of openings and constructed with M30 concrete. Herein, it is apparent that the extent of lateral deformation remains minimal at the base, increasing progressively towards the structure's apex. At its peak, lateral deformation measures approximately 10.31mm (around 0.41 in). These observations underscore the significance of addressing structural stability and integrity in tall buildings, given the increase in lateral deformation with height. Knowledge of these deformation patterns is crucial in implementing appropriate design and engineering measures to uphold the structure's resilience and safety under varying load conditions.

Figure 15. Deformation distribution plot on building without opening using M30 concrete

A detailed examination of pressure distribution for a building with sharp edges and without openings is presented in Figure 16. The analysis demonstrated a maximum induced pressure at the building's windward side, reaching an estimated magnitude of 1324Pa. Contrarily, pressure was relatively lower on the leeward side, highlighting the role of building geometry in shaping the distribution of wind-induced pressures. The understanding of these pressure discrepancies can guide structural design optimization, improving overall stability and performance.

Figure 16. Pressure distribution plot on building with the opening

The pressure field plot in Figure 17 provides a nuanced illustration of the pressure distribution across the building. The leeward side, as highlighted in green, demonstrates a pressure magnitude of approximately 18.5Pa. This pressure difference between the windward and leeward sides, exerting forces on the building, is the likely cause of lateral deformation. These observations suggest the importance of accounting for wind-induced pressures in structural design, which can result in deformations and potential structural challenges. Engineers equipped with this understanding can devise suitable measures to curtail lateral deformations and enhance the building's overall stability.

Figure 17. Pressure field across the plane on the building with the opening

Finally, Figure 18 outlines the velocity distribution across the plane of the building with the opening, providing further insight into the behavior of the building under varying conditions.

Figure 18. Velocity distribution plot across plane on building with the opening

Conclusively, the shear stress distribution in a building structure with openings, constructed using M30 concrete, exhibits higher magnitudes at the base which decrease progressively upwards. Understanding these patterns of shear stress, pressure, and deformation is essential in designing and engineering safe and stable structures, as indicated in Figure 19.

Figure 19. Shear stress distribution plot on building with opening using M30 concrete

Given the shear stress at the base of the edifice is observed to reach its maximum magnitude, approximately 0.016889MPa, denoted by the red region in Figure 20, the analysis asserts the essential role played by the foundation in effectively withstanding and dispersing shear forces. This, in turn, bolsters structural stability and integrity. It is thereby noted that an understanding of these shear stress patterns equips engineers to tailor design and fortification strategies to enhance the building's endurance against lateral forces and, hence, optimize overall structural performance.

In the ensuing analysis, lateral deformation distribution across the edifice, constructed using M30 concrete, is scrutinized. The plot (Figure 20) elucidates the increment in lateral deformation values from base to the top. The peak lateral deformation, estimated to be approximately 6.89mm, is recorded at the topmost point of the structure. This observation accentuates the need for an acute focus on the structural integrity and stability of tall buildings, as the potential for lateral deformation is amplified with height. Consequently, insights derived from these deformations can aid in the formulation of appropriate design measures to fortify the building's structural resilience and safety, especially in zones vulnerable to lateral loads and vibrations.

Figure 20. Deformation plot on building with M30 concrete

Subsequently, the analysis extends to the shear stress distribution in building structures composed of M25 concrete. As portrayed in Figure 21, a higher magnitude of shear stress is exhibited at the base, which progressively declines along the building's height. The peak shear stress is detected at the base, with a magnitude of approximately 0.0108MPa, represented by the red region.

Figure 21. Shear stress distribution plot on building without opening using M25 concrete

A lateral deformation distribution plot is then generated for the building, using M25 concrete (Figure 22). The plot illuminates an increasing trend of lateral deformation values from the base upwards, with the maximum lateral deformation, about 10.969mm, being observed at the top of the structure. This discovery underscores the necessity to address the structural integrity and stability of high-rise buildings as the propensity for lateral deformation increases with elevation. Consequently, understanding these deformations aids designers and engineers in devising strategies to bolster the building's resilience and safety under diverse load conditions.

Figure 22. Deformation distribution plot with M25 concrete on sharp-edged building
Figure 23. Shear stress distribution plot with M25 concrete on sharp-edged building

The final analysis segment explores the shear stress distribution in the building structure crafted from M25 concrete. Figure 23 exhibits a non-uniform distribution of shear stress throughout the structure. Interestingly, the region near the opening displays a higher tensile shear stress, approximately 0.01421MPa. Furthermore, the base of the structure exhibits a shear stress of about 0.0168MPa. This uneven distribution of shear stress underlines the significance of accounting for localized stress concentrations and their potential impact on the building's structural integrity. Consequently, understanding these shear stress variances aids engineers in devising appropriate fortification strategies, such as supplementary structural support or material enhancements, to ensure the building's overall stability and safety. A deformation distribution plot was obtained for the building structure constructed with M25 concrete as shown in Figure 24.

To conclude, these results emphasize the fundamental role of addressing structural design, in particular, the necessity to focus on localized shear stress and deformation patterns in tall buildings. The insights gained from this analysis can guide future research in the area of civil engineering, particularly concerning the design and fortification of tall building structures. The findings also highlight the potential areas for further investigation, including alternative design and fortification strategies for enhanced structural stability and resilience.

Figure 24. Total deformation distribution plot with M25 concrete on sharp-edged building

The present analysis has provided crucial insights into the distribution of lateral deformation across the investigated structure. In the lower portions, a minimal lateral deformation has been identified, with a gradual increase observable as elevation rises. Of particular note is the pronounced lateral deformation evident at the building's pinnacle, registering at an approximate value of 7.3349mm (around 0.29 in). Thus, the study underscores the necessity for careful consideration of structural stability and integrity, particularly with respect to lateral loads and potential deformation. It is inferred that strategic implementation of design measures, such as appropriate reinforcement or structural modifications, based on this distribution of deformation can potentially enhance the building's resilience throughout its height. The application of these insights has promising implications for optimizing design and construction processes, contributing to the creation of structures of greater safety and robustness. Table 2 shows the CFD analysis results from the comparison.

Table 2. CFD analysis results from comparison char
Design TypePressure (Pa)Velocity (m/s)Max. Drag Force (N)
Design without opening1385.9284.7810369
Design with opening1361.5951.993960.63

Further analysis involving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has shed light on the implications of design adaptations. Findings indicate that a design incorporating an opening result in significantly lower induced pressure when compared to a design devoid of openings. The induced pressure on the building with an opening measure at approximately 1361.59Pa, as visualized in Figure 25. This marked reduction in induced pressure underscores the potential benefit of including building openings as a strategy to mitigate pressure accumulation, thereby enhancing the overall stability and resilience of the structure.

Figure 25. Pressure comparison chart

The velocity comparison chart, presented as Figure 26, depicts that the inclusion of an opening leads to a lower induced velocity relative to a design without an opening. This reduction in induced velocity, achieved through the facilitation of air passage via the openings, contributes to improved structural stability and minimizes risks associated with high wind velocities. The relevance of such findings cannot be overstated for architects and engineers aiming to design structures that can effectively manage wind loads, thus ensuring the safety and comfort of occupants while optimizing structural performance.

Figure 26. Velocity comparison chart

Additionally, an examination of drag forces has been performed. Figure 27 elucidates a significant reduction in induced drag for the design with an opening compared to the design without an opening. The measured drag force for the design incorporating an opening is approximately 3960.63N, compared to 10369N for the design without an opening. This considerable decrease in drag force highlights the aerodynamic benefits of including openings in the design. By facilitating wind passage, the design incorporating openings effectively minimizes the detrimental effects of drag, contributing to enhanced structural stability and reduced wind-induced loads.

Figure 27. Drag force comparison chart

A comprehensive comparison of shear stress at the base and lateral deformation has also been conducted for both M25 and M30 concrete materials, presented in Table 3 and Table 4 respectively. Through the evaluation of shear stress distribution and lateral deformation, insights into the performance of these materials under load have been gained. These findings are instrumental in guiding engineers and designers towards informed decisions regarding material selection and structural optimization. The application of such insights holds promise for ensuring structural integrity, durability, and overall performance, benefiting not only the safety of occupants but also the longevity of the structure.

Table 3. FSI analysis results comparison chart for building without opening

M25 concrete

M30 concrete

Shear stress (MPa)

0.0168

0.01083

Lateral Deformation (mm)

10.969

10.31

Table 4. FSI analysis results comparison chart for building with opening

M25 concrete

M30 concrete

Shear stress (MPa)

0.01688

0.01075

Lateral Deformation (mm)

7.3349

6.8937

It is worth noting that this study and the conclusions drawn herein are specific to the particular structure and conditions investigated. Further studies may be required to confirm these findings under different conditions or for different types of structures. Nevertheless, the present study provides valuable insights and data that may serve as a foundation for further research and application in the field of structural design and construction.

4. Conclusions

The comprehensive CFD analysis presented in this study offers valuable insights into the wind load characteristics of triangular-shaped buildings constructed with M25 and M30 concrete. Employing the k-omega turbulence model, accurate simulations of airflow patterns and pressure distributions were achieved, taking into account adverse pressure gradients and streamlined curvature. The results revealed a significant reduction in induced drag for buildings with openings compared to those without, with a noteworthy decrease of 6679N in induced drag observed, emphasizing the effectiveness of openings in mitigating wind forces and enhancing overall structural stability. Moreover, the assessment of lateral deformation, a vital factor for structural integrity, exhibited considerable reductions in buildings with openings. Construction with M25 and M30 concrete led to reductions of 33.13$70 \%$ and 32.17$70 \%$, respectively, in lateral deformation when compared to buildings without openings. These findings underscore the positive impact of openings on the resistance to wind-induced deformations.

While the results contribute to the understanding of wind engineering and hold practical implications for the construction industry, it is crucial to recognize the limitations of the study. The analysis relied on specific assumptions and boundary conditions, which may not fully represent all real-world situations. The accuracy of the findings depends on the precision of the input data and the assumptions made during the simulation.

To further advance the field of wind engineering, future research could explore several areas. One potential direction is the application of advanced wind tunnel testing techniques to capture complex flow patterns and turbulent effects around buildings. Additionally, incorporating nonlinear structural analysis methods may increase the accuracy of predictions, particularly for flexible and slender structures. Obtaining site-specific wind data through advanced anemometry techniques, such as LIDAR or UAV measurements, can significantly improve the precision of wind load calculations. In conclusion, this study offers valuable insights into the wind load characteristics of triangular-shaped buildings and emphasizes the advantages of incorporating openings for improved structural stability. Despite the limitations, these findings hold practical implications for professionals in architecture, engineering, and design involved in building construction and wind engineering. By implementing the insights obtained from this research and exploring future avenues of investigation, practitioners can enhance the wind load resistance and overall structural performance of triangular-shaped buildings, leading to safer and more resilient structures in the built environment.

Author Contributions

“Conceptualization, P.S. and A.A.; methodology, A.A.; software, A.A.; validation, R.C.R., A.A., and P.S.; formal analysis, P.S.; investigation, P.S.; resources, P.S.; data curation, A.A.; writing—original draft preparation, A.A.; writing—review and editing, P.S.; visualization, R.C.R.; supervision, P.S.; project administration, P.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”

Data Availability

The data used to support the research findings are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Sinha, P., Agarwal, A., & Rejeesh, C. R. (2023). Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings. J. Sustain. Energy, 2(2), 50-67. https://doi.org/10.56578/jse020202
P. Sinha, A. Agarwal, and C. R. Rejeesh, "Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings," J. Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 50-67, 2023. https://doi.org/10.56578/jse020202
@research-article{Sinha2023ComputationalFD,
title={Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings},
author={Pramod Sinha and Abhishek Agarwal and Charuvila Rajendran Rejeesh},
journal={Journal of Sustainability for Energy},
year={2023},
page={50-67},
doi={https://doi.org/10.56578/jse020202}
}
Pramod Sinha, et al. "Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings." Journal of Sustainability for Energy, v 2, pp 50-67. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/jse020202
Pramod Sinha, Abhishek Agarwal and Charuvila Rajendran Rejeesh. "Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Influence of Openings on Wind Load and Structural Response in Triangular Buildings." Journal of Sustainability for Energy, 2, (2023): 50-67. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/jse020202
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