The article reflects the views of O.F. Nemanzadeh on the problem of education, on teacher’s profession the effective organization of the learning process. The great writer's attitude to enlightenment and education was brought to the fore. It was noted that O.F. Nemanzadeh worked as a teacher in many places, enlightening children and youth by teaching of secular knowledge. He opened schools in Sheki and Shamakhi, where he taught pedagogical skills and was engaged in school management. The article also noted that the school opened by Seyid Azim Shirvani in Shamakhi became the first school of new style. Therefore, the school that O.F. Nemanzade opened is considered the first new school that advanced according to its own methods and rules. The article also talks about the teaching activity of the great educator, intellectual O.F. Nemanzade in Shamakhi. Both in the schools he opened and, in the articles, he wrote O.F. Nemanzadeh showed that knowledge should be given to children not only during classes, but also at home. He spoke about the considerable usefulness of lessons for children, about their role in the development of knowledge and skills. There are significant differences between children studying at school and those studying at madrassas (religious school), since schoolchildren constantly exchange questions with those who study at madrassas. O.F. Nemanzade went to Ganja for treatment and couldn’t keep himself away of informing the reader about the current situation there. He talked about the fact that the situation in Ganja has been divided into two parts - the old and modern period. The article also draws attention to O.F. Nemanzadeh’s views on the teacher, how to be a real, professional teacher, and the role of the teacher in the development of human society. The great writer brought to the fore the problem of education in Sheki, Ganja, Baku and its difficulties, and the attitude to the field of education was elaborated in biographical sequence.
Azerbaijan has brought up brilliant personalities, outstanding writers, teachers throughout the existence of human society. N. Ganjavi, N. Tusi, A. Bakikhanov, K. Mammadguluzadeh, M. Sabir, Z. Tagiyev, O.F. Nemanzadeh and other geniuses like them have played an irreplaceable role on the path of enlightenment, science, education of the Azerbaijani people. Among these geniuses, O.F. Nemanzadeh was one of the most prominent representatives of the enlightenment movement among these geniuses, who has an important place and role in the development of the national press, the opening of national schools and the teaching of the native language. O.F. Nemanzadeh strove with great faith to develop national consciousness, national self-confidence; he did not spare his merits on this path. He enjoyed great authority among the people, among the brilliant personalities of that time; his name was always remembered with deep love and respect. The opening of national schools, the organization of education entirely in the native language, the elimination of traditions that hinder development, the leadership of local authorities, religious figures created a difficult situation and delayed the process for that time. O.F. Nemanzadeh later wrote in his “Memories”: “in order to destroy the old life and old mode of life created by customs and move on to new paths, a long-term social, revolutionary and scientific training is needed. Without this and such kind of preparation, it is difficult to conduct new educational and cultural work and achieve success in the work done” (Sultanov, 2011).
In his works and articles, O.F. Nemanzadeh praised the teacher’s work. He has repeatedly noted that teachers need to be given due attention. A teacher is loyal to his profession, loyal to his nation. A teacher, however, should not strive for praise, kind words, he should inspire children for the good of the future, educate good citizens. He must prepare children for the future, try to realize consciously the concept of freedom in the right form.
There is reason to say that the correct education system and knowledgeable young teaching staff are the main indicators of the country's development. Thus, the main idea of state-social management of education is to combine the efforts of the state and society to solve educational problems, to give great rights and freedoms to teachers, students, and parents in choosing the content, forms and methods of the educational process, and various types of educational institutions. This state character means the implementation of a unified policy in the field of education in the country. The achievements of the country's socio-economic, political, cultural and international fields are the achievements of the education system.
The main goal of O.F. Nemanzadeh’s struggle for life was to raise the level of education and culture of the people. By organizing a modern education system, he tried to systematically realize this goal by educating and guiding the young generation in the spirit of patriotism and educating the general public through the media. These were the main reasons for his efforts to open modern schools in Sheki and other cities. O.F. Nemanzadeh emphasizes the importance of the introduction of a new methodical school system in all educational institutions, founded by Ismail bey Gaspirali (Crimean Tatar, thinker, teacher, writer, a prominent figure who emphasized the need for education, culture and modernization of the Turkic and Islamic nations in the Russian Empire). He believed that by organizing such schools, his people and nation would move forward.
If we pay attention to the period in which the outstanding educator lived and the period in which the current society was formed, the rapid development is clearly noticeable. Especially in recent times, the development of technology, the introduction of new tools and equipment to the field of science and education has not only made people's work easier, but also caused difficulties in itself. It is gratifying that the top level of the education system that Omar Faig Nemanzade wanted to see and implement has developed and formed. Thus, the involvement of the entire nation in the field of education in recent times is a prime example of this (Gakhramanov, 2008).
O.F. Nemanzadeh tried to open national-new style schools, organization of education system in accordance with modern requirements, reduce religious classes, and move people away from the difficult. The author paid special attention to the issues of education, education, science and the effective organization of the education system in his work. O.F. Nemanzadeh worked as a teacher in Sheki, Shamakhi and Ganja, and preferred to teach secular subjects rather than religion in the schools where he worked as a teacher.
The writer's interest in secular sciences and knowledge began from a young age. The great writer goes to Istanbul for his uncle to continue his education. After ten years of working in Istanbul, O.F. Nemanzadeh returned to his homeland and wanted to open a small school in Azagur, but local officials refused to open the school (Huseynov, 1986). Thus, Nemanzadeh had to leave his homeland to go to other cities to continue the enlightenment movement. The writer was writing in his memoirs that he went to Tbilisi with the hope of working in the government school. It was his main goal to be a true professional teacher and to teach students to science and knowledge. But the writer did not find a job here and went to go to Baku. "But I went to Sheki on the advice of merchants, the picture I met at that time. Like them, I thought that opening national schools in the cities that were far from the center in a new way would be better than serving in the center.” (Gurbanov, 1992).
Enlightened, intellectual O.F. Nemanzadeh began working as a teacher in Sheki. The people of Sheki also established good relations both with the Ottoman turks and with Russian Turks; and the development of trade and industry in the city changed the perspective on education. Those who possessed a certain art understood the importance of science, reading, and enlightenment, and wanted to organize an enlightened society. O.F. Nemanzadeh played an unparalleled role in the organization of this educational society.
So, He received permission from the government to open a school in Sheki, and for the first time in the Caucasus in 1894, a Turkish school was opened, which played an irreplaceable role for the enlightenment movement in other parts of the country. This new methodical school opened in Sheki was previously opened by Seyid Azim Shirvani in Shamakhi (Mustafayev, 2019). In essence, the school organized by O.F. Nemanzadeh is the first.
The writer's attitude to the field of education, his views and his transformation into a full-fledged school in Sheki was a great turn around for the period. In the study of the writer's creativity, it becomes clear that his ideas about the education system were formed in three directions. We can determine these levels in the following way:
1. Content of lessons in the learning process.
2. Conduct of education on certain stages.
3. Effective organization of the educational process and the relationship between them.
Taking into account these values, we can turn the school organized in Sheki into a research facility (Khalilov, 2019).
The school was organized in a building consisting of four rooms next to the Juma Mosque. Education at school was free. There were up to 200 students at the school. Donations were collected by members of the Educational Society to improve the school, to ensure that children receive comfortable training and knowledge. At first, shariat (religious) classes were preferred at school. Fanaticism ruled with all its existence (Abbasov, 2007). O.F. Nemanzadeh was concerned about superstition, the establishment of all thoughts and opinions only on religion. He tried to remove the sharia lessons from the curriculum and the final stage is could also able to carry out this process. During his teaching career, O.F. Nemanzade gradually, without attracting attention, changed the old proqram. In the program, in order to close the eyes of local administrators, religious figures and inspectors, he increased the number of Koran and Sharia lessons, but reduced the number of these lessons in teaching and took as a basis lessons such as spelling, counting, history. And this process consisted mainly of the content of the lessons that were held in the learning process. Mosque schools in Sheki also stood out and began to follow the path of secular schools. Sheki was already on the path of enlightenment, freed from the shackles of paganism, religious fanaticism (Halilov, 2015).
There were four teachers in the school. Nemanzadeh, together with teachers, prepared a 4-year primary school program and divided students into 4 classes, 4 to the educational stage according to their knowledge. Turkish language, Quran, Sharia are taught in 1st grade; Turkish language, arithmetic, Quran, Sharia – in the 2nd grade; Turkish language, Russian language, arithmetic, Quran, Sharia – in the 3rd grade; Turkish language, Russian, arithmetic, history, geography, spelling, Quran, and Sharia – in the 4th grade (Kemaloghlu, 2015).
O.F. Nemanzadeh was engaged in spelling and arithmetic lessons. The introduction of Quran and Sharia lessons in all four grades was reluctant to satisfy the clergy, who have always opposed both the people and the schools. The spelling classes were more difficult for students than for the other classes. Taking into account the difficulty of the lessons, O.F. Nemanzadeh explained the lesson to the students in the form of stories, and then wrote them down, repeating them sentence by sentence. Having taught them to write the topic, he spoke about the way of life and culture of other countries. He encouraged his students to master science and worldly knowledge and tried to remove the veil of ignorance from their eyes.
O.F. Nemanzadeh went to Ganja for treatment in 1896. Here he met a young teacher from Istanbul named Mohammed. Nemanzadeh personally did not work in the schools of Ganja with the help of a young teacher. He learned about educational institutions in Ganja. He told Nemanzadeh about the Juma Mosque school opened with the help of Ganja educators. The young teacher began to teach at the school, with the help of which the school began to develop (Khalilov, 2012).
The school system was so well-organized that in a short time it trained young teachers and writers. Nemanzadeh wrote that the city had very well-organized gymnasiums, city schools for girls and boys at that time. O.F. Nemanzadeh noted that as in all regions the appearance of the city was divided into two parts: “The boundary of this division was the Ganja River and the bridge. There were Armenians on the other side of the bridge, where gymnasiums, city schools, clubs, theaters, cultural institutions, bright, wide streets, refreshments... On this side – on Turkish streets there were prisons, castles, courts, madrasas, rooms for seyid, mourning, places of worship, as many ancient places as possible, darkness, on the other side - many neatly dressed boys’ and girls’ groups in the courtyards of beautiful three-story buildings, books in their armpits, many women’s and men’s gatherings engaged in cultural and national affairs in clubs, societies and charities...” (Gurbanov, 1992).
After a while, O.F. Nemanzade returned to Sheki in 1898. He has been teaching at school for several years. He goes to great lengths to organize lessons in the same way and innovate. This time, the main task of the lessons was to organize the completeness of the lessons. He reviewed the program, made updates and additions. Thus, the difference between students in mosque schools and in city schools was noticeable. The large number of lessons, the including of additions and the emphasis on teaching secular knowledge created certain difficulties. Despite all the difficulties, the lessons sparked awakening and innovation in the minds of children and young people, and formed new views and meetings about the future. Therefore, children who graduated from school were eager to go to higher schools to improve their education and develop it. Such a systematic organization of classes, advances in the field of training were the main indicator of raising the level of education of the city. The author also attached particular importance to the effective organization of training and education, the interaction between them (Kahalilov, 2022).
O.F. Nemanzadeh does not want to stay here for a long time, as the school’s material and moral progress is also in order. Because he considered that it was necessary to spread his light, science, innovations, ideas and support young enlighteners. In his memory, he notes that he went to Baku hoping to find Turkish cultural, national and educational works that he could not find during his stay in Tbilisi in 1900. But seeing the current situation here, O.F. Nemanzadeh’s hopes were destroyed. The only place of hope was the girls’ school, which was opened in Baku, and this created a mood in him. He noted: “if I had not seen Tagiyev's school, I would have drawn a black line on the Turkish education of Baku” (Taleh, 2021). O.F.Nemanzadeh expressed this joyful case in his article. He writes about it as a long article in the collection of “Sarveti-funun” (scientific-mass and literary social Journal published in Turkish in Istanbul in 1891-1944) published in Istanbul with the signature of “Kheyri-mazluma”. This educational institution was a miracle not only for Baku, but also for the then period.
The profession of teacher is one of the valuable and most honorable, beautiful professions. The teacher is a person who influences the person, the formation of personality, plays an indispensable role in the upbringing of geniuses, doctors, professionals from ancient times to the present day. O.F. Nemanzadeh spoke about the profession of teacher and always appreciated this profession highly. He emphasized the role of his teacher in Nemanzadeh's views on education. In many of his articles, he praised his teacher for the development of the nation and the removal of the veil of ignorance. in his views on education, Nemanzade emphasized thoughts on the role of the teacher. In many of his articles, he praised the teacher for the development of the nation and the removal of the veil of ignorance. Nemanzadeh repeatedly noted that the degree of progress of each nation is known by the degree of teachers. In some of his articles, he complained that teachers were not able to properly perform their profession, and their freedom was taken from their hands. It was a difficult and turbulent period, especially for those engaged in education and science. It was a pity that the work of teachers was not given due value, and that the clergy were in a better position than the teachers behind the idea of imparting secular knowledge.
O.F. Nemanzade paid special attention to the professional quality of teachers and teachers “why are our teachers run to Baku”, “Umidvar” in his memoirs. In his article “Why Our Teachers Run to Baku”, Nemanzadeh clearly highlighted the injustices done to teachers and their problems. He noted that there is no need more important than our teachers. “The matter of the teacher is of great importance not only for us, but also for every nation. It is a fact that a handful of British own half of the world without weapon and rifles, not thanks to the drunken solgiers in Egipt and India, but by means of their principals, scientists, binoculars and selfless teachers in London. It is because of the political leaders who are trained by the teachers.” (Kahalilov, 2022). Nemanzadeh said that the main reason for which teachers leaved their lands for other cities was low salary and lack of attention to teachers. While the owner raised the worker’s salary for the good work he does, the teacher remained in shadow in spite of the fact he devotes his life and energy to teaching for years. If the living conditions of teachers were not improved, if salaries were not increased, there would be no teachers left in the village, and the newly started educational life would be severely affected. Decrees were signed to improve the welfare of teachers, increase Muslim classes. Everyone was informed about it everywhere. But those promises turned into a lie, they served to improve the state of strangers. The progress of the nation is not only the opening of educational institutions, but also the provision of proper assessment to the teaching staff of classes and subjects. Nemanzadeh wrote that schools without teachers are devastated, jobs are miserable, the state of people is bad. Most countries in the world are progressed and gained success not by arms and rifles, but by intelligent, thinking brains. Thus, the genius writer clarified the reason why teachers fled to Baku (Huseyn, 2007).
O.F. Nemanzadeh tried to focus on honesty, integrity, unity of requirements in the teaching profession. He said that a teacher should enter the classroom believing in their own strength, be kind to others, stay away from the indifference to his\her people, and prefer quality to quantity. In the article, Nemanzadeh spoke about the fact that a person who called himself a teacher at a new methodical school in the city had a severe impact on the newly flourishing educational life. Nemanzadeh writes that although it is difficult to find a Muslim teacher, the schools are being rebuilt and partially renovated for several years. A teacher who will teach Russian was invited to make the school better. A letter was written to the local authorities, and in a short time a teacher was selected and sent, noting that the school had become an extinct educational institution. After a while, the Turkish maps that were on the walls of the school, the Turkish books that appear on the bookshelf, were taken away with the order of the inspector. The teacher assigned to the school began to apply the behaviors he secretly received from the gentlemen, the training he was studying. One day O.F. Nemanzadeh said to the children: “After that, according to the law, you must open your heads at school (put off the head cover). This command, this sound will capture all parts of the city in half an hour. Everyone's face shows the government's complaint about the discontent of his heart... The school's progress and hopes are blessed” (Huseynzade, 2002).
Of course, there were shortcomings at school. O.F. Nemanzade saw the basis of the disadvantage in the inability to use pedagogical methods correctly. Over time, pedagogical methods and tools began to improve in relationships with students, since he first appeared at this school as a teacher. He noted that the teacher should not just talk about the topic, but pedagogically master such techniques as encouraging, inspiring students, forming interest in the lesson. He proceeded from constant attention to talented, capable students and an individual approach to each of them. He noted the advantage of using visual aids in teaching.
Patience, restraint and self-control ensuring interaction with students and their individual approach to solving some issues were required from those who owned the profession of a teacher. It was not so easy for young teachers who had just graduated from school to express tolerance and restraint while thinking about their future and the fate of the people. Increasing the attention to young teachers and those who master the teaching profession, improving their well-being, and taking care of them by the leadership and the people of the nation were the main issues. “A teacher left without a support, without hope, without home and thinking only about that how not to stay hungry, will not be useful for society”. O.F. Nemanzadeh in his article “Umidvaram” (I’m hopeful) paid special attention to the teacher, the work of the teacher. In the article, the writer expressed his attitude to the matter “teachers” written by Firidun bay Kocharli. He expressed the hope that the issue of teachers will not be raised like other issues, and Firidun bay Kocharli did not consider it right to turn to other areas in order to improve the situation of this complex and difficult profession. O.F. Nemanzadeh confirms this opinion of Firidun bey Kocharli: “In addition to such qualities as intelligence, knowledge, hard work, high skill, cultural behavior, accuracy in work, loyalty and so on teacher must have a heart that beats with love and care for children.” (Kocharli, 2005).
The teachers had many responsibilities. He told his school teachers and educators that they should not only educate children, but also work to prevent the spread of the ignorant. A true teacher must be able to build respect, mutual understanding and cooperation between the school and parents for his pedagogical skills and humanity, his humanity, his sincerity towards students and the people. We must open the eyes of children and influence on their minds so that they do not blindly believe lies and promises. He feared that the children would rebel against their religion and beliefs if they did not believe the false words and promises and did not study in their own language. Thus, O.F. Nemanzadeh saw all the severity, the correct orientation of children in the work of teachers, in their role. He hoped that our brave and important teachers would support him and make every effort to address the deficiencies in the school (Abbasov, 2007).
Along with the questions of the native language and the national alphabet in the new methodological schools organized by O.F. Nemanzade, one of the important issues was the pedagogical approach of teachers to their students while teaching. Important conditions were considered the attitude of the teacher to the students in the classroom, increasing their interest in the lesson and adherence to the rules of etiquette. The profession of teacher was a very new and difficult profession. Despite all the difficulties, O.F. Nemanzadeh tried to develop himself and his colleagues who will teach lessons (Khalilov, 2013). O.F. Nemanzadeh considered the teacher to be the master of the lesson and the regulating force of the school. O.F. Nemanzade was not against the opening of madrasahs and the organization of classes in them. He wanted secular lessons to be taught to students, teachers to improve themselves and use new resources. In the new training system, O.F. Nemanzade challenged the teacher to speak in simple language, research and develop topics appropriate for the students' age, assess their knowledge and build trust. He stressed that teachers need to teach in their own language and communicate secular knowledge to students.
From the foregoing, it is clear that the author assesses ensuring proper interaction with students, taking into account their individual and age characteristics, correctly mastering the subject and using useful teaching methods, methods and means, teaching masterly passing the lesson as the most necessary professional quality of the teacher and addressed to future young teachers to carry out work in this direction.
These ideas mentioned by the outstanding educator retain their relevance even for the modern era. A teacher must acquire pedagogical culture, psychological and pedagogical knowledge, so that he can handle the class he teaches and form relationships correctly. This is the main gift for future young teachers.
The purpose of the research is to properly organize the education system and show the main role of the teacher in this process.
In order to achieve the goal, a number of important tasks are set:
- To reveal the essence of the effective organization of the educational process;
- To analyze the activities of the author as a teacher-educator;
- To examine the professional qualities of the teacher and the issues that he will pay attention to in the educational process;
- To research the role of teacher in the society;- To pay attention to the issues of observing the rules of behavior and attitude of children in the classroom.
Addressing the topics and archival documents involved in the research; using the articles and books written about the author as the object of research; researching and revealing the issues necessary for the period were investigated. The role of Internet resources is also important in connecting them with the modern era and the attitude of people to the problems in the field of education and the teaching profession is distinguished by its essence.
During the development of the article relied mainly on observation, opinion, geniuses, masters of feathers, life experience, made records about the writer.
The results of the study include the following general issues:
1. As a result, the author's work became the object of research again.
2. The writer's attitude to the problem of education was studied.
3. Each work written by O.F. Nemanzadeh is distinguished by its deep meaning and breadth of scope.
4. The author's teaching activity is a very valuable legacy for future young teachers.
5. The author's comments about the teacher are very valuable, and he saw the teacher's pedagogical skills primarily in how he taught the lesson.
It is necessary to discuss in the article such issues as the genius writer's problem of education and its effective organization, how to be a real teacher and what professional qualities should be mastered.
Thus, increasing attention to the field of education, arming the young generation with knowledge, increasing worldview, getting acquainted with the works of great literary geniuses, as well as learning about their struggle in the field of science and education is important for everyone working as a teacher working in the field of education. We have briefly commented on the opening of new method schools by O.F. Nemanzadeh, one of the great writers and educators, his work as a pedagogue teacher, his attitude towards teachers and the views of the genius writer in the field of education. During his lectures, O.F. Nemanzade based on the formation of students’ ideas about enthusiasm, interest and free thinking both by themselves and by teachers teaching subjects. As a teacher, he focused on careful and adorable attitude to students, basing on the principle of interaction, taking into account age characteristics, ensuring proper interaction with students and believed that such behavior as punishment. As a result, he emphasized, future young teachers should not be content with teaching his lesson, but should encourage children to believe in science, knowledge, and self-efficacy. It was showed that his attitude to the field of education, teaching methods and teaching skills were an example for the younger generation and future teachers.
All the works of O.F. Nemanzadeh, the enlightened, intelligent, great writer, is a great heritage and treasure for future generations. In this article, we have focused on some of the author’s works, some parts of his legacy, and articles.
The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.