The aim of this paper is to determine resources and competitive factors of sport tourism suitable to tourism business circumstances. For this paper and according to accessible and processed sources, had not been found research that determine and treats concept of sport comprehensively, by the sub-areas of sport. Sport tourism in theory represents a selective form of tourism and should be based, in accordance with contemporary trends, on comparative competitiveness and sustainable development. Sustainable development includes a wide range of relevant platforms. These platforms influence the sustainable planning of sport tourism supply. The question is what are the resources and factors that are important for the planning of sport-tourism supply and fit into comparative competitiveness and sustainable development? The practical and theoretical purpose of this paper are the determination of resources and factors important for the planning and development of sport tourism in those destinations that want to develop this form of selective tourism. In these destinations such created supply of sports and recreational amenities and facilities should resulted with increase in consumption. Previously defined resources and factors should be the basis for the planning of the overall development of a particular destination and, consequently, for decision-making process on potential investment engagements. Such structural changes should also reflected on the structure of the supply and potentially define changes in the guests structure/profile and their demand or consumption. Thus, in this paper determined resources and factors, if applied, should affect directly or indirectly the planning and decisions development in each particular destination.
People travel all around the World from time immemorial. From today’s point of view, this can be called as “early forms of Travel and types of Journey” (Gyr, 2010). So, tourism, as we know it today, developed from traveling and different types of journey. Most likely, significant for that transformation, was invention of steam engine in 18th century and beginning of industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution, above the other reasons, brings ‘steam train’ in technological dimension (Sezgin,Yolal, 2012). "Introductory phase” of modern tourism lasted between the first third of the 19th century until the twenties of 20th century (Gyr, 2010), when traveling become tourism and a business activity. From mid-20th century, tourism expanded all around the world. Receipts from international tourism rose dramatically from 1950-ies to nowadays (Mihalič, 2014) and become one of the key contribution, to almost every national GDP. “The total contribution of Travel & Tourism, on world level, to GDP was USD 8.272,3bn (10.4% of world GDP) in 2017, and is forecast to rise by 4.0% in 2018, and to rise by 3.8% to USD 12,450.1bn (11.7% of GDP) in 2028. In 2017, the total contribution of Travel & Tourism, on world level, to employment, including jobs indirectly supported by the industry, was 9.9% of total employment (313,221,000 jobs). This is expected to rise by 3.0% in 2018 to 322,666,000 jobs and rise by 2.5% to 413,556,000 jobs in 2028 (11.6% of total).” (WTTC , 2018) So, it is obvious that “travel has become a global business whose expanding market now leaves no place untouched.” (Kotler, et al., 2003:717)
Thus, the increase in tourist business activity was, and still is, linked to the liberalization of visa regimes, to the technological improvement of transport and supporting facilities and the fall in prices of transport services, to the growth of global purchasing power at global level, to the diversification of accommodation capacity and growth of supply and other not mentioned factors. Considering those, it is logical that the destinations "compete" for the largest and the best part of the tourist demand cake. In this sense, all those places that want to become interesting to tourists, strive to provide attractive content and services to attract potential consumers. Sport as a very attractive activity is not overlooked.
Global Sport Tourism is estimated at $480 Billion and sport tourism growth 14% compared to overall tourism market of 2-3% (Delpy, Paulton, 2016). The share of economic and other impacts of sport tourism, in compare to the level of overall tourism industry effects, according to available data for Croatia, is undetermined, because there is no unique classification and methodology that would determine the impacts and other effects of sport tourism. However, some researches has been carried out on consumer preferences and tourism expenditure, such as Tomas continuous research conducted by the Institute of Tourism (IT, Tomas 2017, 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004 ...). Or, the sporadic ones - ad hoc studies, such as the research that carried out the European Commission's Directorate - Economic and Financial Affairs staff (Orsini, Ostojić, 2018).
A “travel expenditure” was assumed to have taken place whenever a traveler exchanged money for an activity considered part of his trip (Frechtling, 1974). Alternatively, World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism consumption as “the total consumption expenditure made by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination” (WTO, 1999:20). Mihalic (2002) correctly indicates tourism as an “expenditure-driven economic activity. That is, the consumption of tourism is at the center of the economic measurement of tourism and the foundation of the economic impacts of tourism and, therefore, understanding tourism consumption is essential for understanding tourism’s economic impacts” (2002:88).
So, where, when and on what tourists are willing to spend their money? Frechtling (1994) claim that “travel expenditures are estimated for 19 different items in six basic expenditure categories: public transportation, auto transportation, lodging, food, entertainment/ recreation, and incidental purchases (Table 1). Total travel expenditure is the sum of all expenditure categories.” (1994:14) According to same paper, the entertainment/recreation category includes admission fees at theme and amusement parks, snow ski lift tickets and lessons, casino gaming and other expenditures on entertainment and recreation . However, this is only one point of view.
Thus, such mentioned researches can be useful for other researches related to sport tourism and its effects. Sports tourism, in theory, represent selective forms of tourism and should be in line with modern trends, based on comparative competitiveness and sustainable development.
Competitiveness comes from a number of factors, and depends on the available resources.
The main purpose of this paper is to determine, and to emphasize the importance of those resources and factors of competitiveness that could be and should be important for the planning and development of sports tourism in those destinations that want to develop this form of selective tourism. Resources and factors should be used for planning of sports tourism demand and supply for the specified destination, in order to improve sports and recreation facilities and their economic and other impacts on local economy.
The aim is to detect, determine and present basic and relevant factors and resources important for decision-making process, planning and development process of sports tourism from the author point of view, in order to manage easier sports and tourism supply and resources.
The secondary aim of this paper is to show the importance of sport for tourism supply, activities and its impacts.
The original contribution of this paper is reflected in the presentation of the basic and relevant factors and resources important for decision-making, planning and development of sports tourism i.e. in order to encourage the development of methodological processes that should be used for planning of sustainable development with focus on sports-tourism facilities and products supply.
In this paper, an overview of previous researches was not set as separate chapter. The reason is that overview of previous researches are not only the source of data, but they are foundation of this paper. Therefore, based on those previous researches, the "base for planning" was set, which should influence the development and competitiveness of some certain tourist destination (in accordance with main purpose of this paper). In that sense, an overview of previous researches was given through main chapters where the topic of this paper was being dealt with. The number of factors and resources important for decision-making, planning and development was not limited.
In order to determine basic and most effective factors and resources important for decision- making, planning and development process of sports tourism, in this paper, general methods of scientific research were used. In paper was used desk research of primary, secondary and tertiary sources of data i.e. publications. For data processing were used systematic observation, description method, causal method, deductive and inductive methods, and methods of analysis, synthesis, and comparative analysis with the choice of the appropriate comparison standard. Thus, this paper uses a kind of benchmarking of various methodological approaches to research factors and resources relevant to the competitiveness of individual destinations. Paper involves, beside primary, secondary and tertiary data resources, information/factors and resources that other researchers have gathered through their original scientific researches. On such collected information’s, the qualitative explanatory methods – processing, compiling, assembling and linking were done.
So, this type of explanatory method should be used if the goal is to seek the answer for a question that sought to explain the presumed causal links in real-life that are too complex for the survey or experimental strategies (Yin, 2003; Baxter & Jack, 2008:547).
In such a case of evaluation, the explanations would link to effects, resources and factors with proposed "Base for planning", which represent a compilation of various studies and researched data. All in order to determine relationship between two or more independent variables that influence dependent variable - factors and resources that positively influence on domestic supply in tourist destination, and consequently on local economy incomes. Therefore, the empty hypothesis was set:
EH: From all processed data, the extracted and segregated ones (independent variable) are those that influence on local economy (dependent variable) in those destinations who use sport tourism supply as tool for enrich and increase their incomes.
Defining the term of sport and what sport tourism includes is necessary and important. Because, golf tourism, cycling, mountain and adventure tourism were listed separately in the "Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020", and the question arises whether they are an integral part of sports tourism and its variant, or sports tourism comprises something else.
In mentioned Strategy in Chapter "Introduction", under the title "Tourism infrastructure", many sports facilities were listed, which are usually missing to complete the tourist supply and encourage the consumption. However, the content is confusingly divided into sports, hiking, cycling, diving and sailing. Furthermore, in chapter "Products", golf tourism, cycling, mountain and adventure tourism were also listed separately. The close attention should be paid to these issues. And finally, it is necessary to point out that the term “sport tourism” in the whole "Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020" was mentioned only three (3) times.
In practice, but also in theory, by the profession is not clearly and unambiguously defined the term "sport". Therefore, this might raise numerous dilemmas in terms of what exactly comprises the concept of sport. The very mention of the term "sport" suggests different frameworks of understandings this term. Due to the complexity of understanding the notion of sports, it is necessary to mention - sport as dynamic category is constantly evolving through praxis and researches. That also imposes the need for continuous development of the definition and understanding the notion of sport. In this sense, as a result of the logical sequence of the various definitions, the definition of the term “sport” respecting the specific interdisciplinary aspect of sport and economics and taking into account other views and opinions has been brought out. Term "Sport", from the etymological point of view, has root from the old French word "desport" which had a meaning of fun, amusement, entertainment, and at the same time indicating a set of possibilities or means by which human can pleasantly spend time. Word is accepted also in England, where it retains its original meaning over the word "disport" with the connotation of "to be cheerful" and/or "to having fun" (Novak, I., 1996:199). Sport is any activity, experience or business venture focused on fitness, recreation, sports (athletics) or free (leisure) time (Pitts, Fielding and Miller 1994). "From this point of view, sport is not necessarily competitive" (J. B. Parks et al., 1998:2). "Obviously, "sport" is a complex concept and can be understood as an activity and as business activity. In defining the term ''sport'' it is important to determine whether it generates the impact and what kind of effects. So, sport is an activity that generates, in a specific manner, sports business activities which are carried out through sub-areas of sport, and these sport business activities, in the broadest sense, produces socio-economic impacts of important and valuable for the life of the individuals and society as a whole (Novak, 2006:199-210).
Based on previous definition, in document "Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020" golf tourism, cycling, mountain and adventure tourism were entirely unjustifiably extracted from the context of sports tourism.
This issue is important for the planning of comparative competitiveness and sustainable development of sports tourism and should take into consideration all of sub-areas and all categories of sport in order to plan comparative competitiveness and sustainable development and eventual enlargement of supply of sports facilities, products and services within the tourism product. The main purpose of this approach is to meet the needs and desires of consumers / guests, and to achieve the set of expected impacts, especially ones for encouraging the consumption (economic effects) and guest satisfaction (psychological effects). It is another question whether there are, and which, conditions for the development of certain activities for particular tourist location.
The term generally denotes an infrastructure and refers to both basic facilities and systems, including the services and contents necessary for infrastructure functioning (compilation of Ekonomski leksikon, 1995, Collins English Dictionary, 2012, etc). It is not enough to have sports facilities and playgrounds, but a system that works, as well. The infrastructure is directly linked to economic development, ie to the possible development strategies (Ekonomski leksikon, 1995). Therefore, sports infrastructure is indivisible from facilities and ancillary services and contents, and/or human or other resource implies a system that produces all kinds of direct and indirect effects.
Sports infrastructure may be based on a complex and more expensive products and services such as SRC's , gyms, wellness, spa, indoor and outdoor playgrounds and other sporting more or less complex and/or expensive sports facilities. Furthermore, it can be based on a simple and affordable service that uses natural resources, or combined services based on supply "for each category of guest somewhat". It's the matter of choice of strategy and real possibilities.
Adjusted to general economic impact of sport as a business activity, sport tourism can act through direct and indirect effects, on the macro and micro levels, which are measurable and non-measurable, and they can be tangible and intangible. Problems occur during particular procedures of valorization of these effects, because different methodologies involve different approaches, advantages, disadvantages and subjectivity, which can be directly reflected in the decision-making process. Based on data available for Croatia and considering the level of total effects of tourism activities, share of some economic and other effects of sport tourism cannot be exactly determined. According to the available statistical data, the effects are insufficient and inadequate. Data underlying this conclusion, are results of the most important and most extensive periodic research in Croatia, research of Institute of Tourism named "Tomas", in this case "Tomas Summer 2017" (IT, 2018). Considering the representative sample and on relevant research for Croatian tourism on the Adriatic coast in summer months, the researched data show the following:
1. 20% (7% 2014) of all tourists on Adriatic coast came because of Sport and recreation as main travel motive
2. Average consumption in destination on sports and recreation is 3,05 € per day per guest (1,83 2014) or 3,87% (2.75% 2014) of the total daily consumption (78,77 €/per day)
3. Guest satisfaction is on low (intermediate 2014) level of satisfaction, due to the lack of richness of supply of sports facilities
4. The average length of stay was 8,2 (8.7 2014) nights
5. Arrival of tourists by road transport is 85% (88% 2014)
6. Arrivals with the partner was dominant 48,1% came with a partner, 37,8% of tourists came with family, 9,8% with friends, while 4,3% of tourists arrive independently.
Also, in a study “Beyond the Sun and sea” (Orsini, Ostojić, 2018) was detect that tourists in Croatia spend significantly less than in competing countries. Consumption in Croatia is about 70 percent of average consumption in other Mediterranean countries. (See Figure 1, HR - Croatia) The reason is, probably, service based on "sun and sea". This service is accompanied by a poor tourist infrastructure, which consequently meets the category of low-income guests.
Apart from services based on the "sun and sea" model, a further disadvantage is the high seasonality of Croatian tourism in compare with other North Mediterranean countries. This is confirmed by the data of the largest number of tourist nights spent in the summer months (see Figure 2, dark blue curve HR stands for Croatia) and predominantly on the Adriatic coast.
So oriented business activity also has additional unfavorable circumstances that affect total income and the overall business result of the tourist activity. First, that is a low level of turnover. Secondly, there is no re-spent effect, which directly influences the amount of revenue. Thirdly, there is no aggregate demand growth and the effect of the multipliers is significantly reduced, so there is no increase in GDP on that basis.
Twenty (20)% of all tourists on Adriatic coast came because of Sport and recreation as main travel motive. These data provide optimism. However, presented data regarding the level of guest satisfaction on Adriatic coast in summer of 2017 was on low level of satisfaction, due to the lack of richness of supply of sports facilities. This fact may adversely affect future arrivals based on sport and recreation motive.
Average consumption in destination in 2017 on sports and recreation was 3,05€ per day per guest or 3.87% of the total daily consumption. If it is known for the fact that the average customer in Croatia on the Adriatic coast (i.e. in the summer season) spent 78.77€ per day, it can be concluded that guests might spend more if destination might offer adequate facilities. This conclusion is also based on data that show the structure of monthly household income of guests on Adriatic coast, as follows: 24% below 2000€/month, 36% of guests with monthly income between 2000-3000€/month and 40% of guests with monthly income above 3000€ (IT Tomas, 2017).
Isolated figure refers to the average length of stay, shows 8.2 nights length of stay. Although the length of stay is not short, it is possible to act on that length as well. Considering that it is a dominant motive of a passive holiday and relaxation for the 55% of all respondents (IT Tomas, 2017), e.g. it is a summer vacation of tourists who came predominantly from Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Italy, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia (CBS , 2016). Some facts show that "Germans have in one year 10 days holidays and 40 days of paid holiday. In average, employees in the EU have been paid for 10.5 days of holiday and 24.8 days of paid annual vacation" (CePPEI, 2017). These data suggest that longer stays on the Adriatic coast intended for vacation are possible.
Separated data for the type of transportation, shows the arrival of tourists by road vehicles in even 85% of cases, whereby 64% come by car, 9% by car-caravan, 6% by camper, 4% came by bus and 2% by motorcycle. These data suggest the possibility of using the sports facilities with the use of equipment or items that guests can bring along as well as the potential infrastructure usage in destination with a lower cost for the rental price of this equipment.
Data that refers to way of arrivals, shows that arrivals with the partner was dominant - 48,1% came with a partner, 37,8% of tourists came with family, 9,8% with friends, while 4,3% of tourists arrived independently. Each of these categories has its own potential in relation to the possible supply that can be formed and be structured according to the interests of certain categories of guests. For the couples and for the families is certainly desirable to participate in those sports and recreational activities that combine participation in such activities. The same applies to other isolated groups - friends and singles.
Furthermore, according to studies - "Consumption of Foreign Tourists in Croatia" (CNB, 2010), - "Tourist activities of the local population" (CBS & IT, 2011); and according to - estimates of the Institute of Tourism (IT), consumers spent 49% on accommodation and 17% on food and drink of the total daily consumption. Thus, there is approximately 34% of the funds remaining that can be directed towards consumption in the field of sport and recreation (current level of consumption is 3.87%), which can eventually raise the overall guest satisfaction.
Although the idea of sustainable development is very old, there is an imbalance reproducibility of (natural) resources and human needs caused by time and technology development, so the idea of sustainable development gains in significance. During the 60s of the XX century, sustainable development is linked solely to the environment protection from the effects of industrial pollution on which indicates Rachael Carson in 1962, so as consequent 1969 Americans introduced the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in response to the oil spill at Santa Barbara, CA (Stofleth Danny, 2017). The idea of sustainable development, but not in those exact words, received the first recognition in 1972 at the UN conference in Stockholm, on the basis of development and ecology of the environment, as separate issues, which should operate on the common ground and be driven in a mutually beneficial way (SD Commission , 2017). In this sense, it is understandable that for the understanding of the concept of sustainable development, attention is placed on the concept of "sustainability" and the concept of "development" (Franck-Dominique Vivien, 2008). Therefore, based on the conclusions of the conference in Stockholm in 1972, and especially and explicitly in the document "Our Common Future" (UN Brundtland Report, 1987), it can be stated that contemporary sustainable development minimally and undoubtedly contains the basic platforms of sustainability - ecological (environment), economic and social sustainability. The cultural platform, which is also mentioned in Report, is not overlooked and makes the fourth (4th) pillar of sustainable development.
To these platforms is necessary to add the natural economic effort of establishing production which is based on the principle "Producing More with Less" (UN WCED Brundtland Report, 1987:31). On the basis of Brundtland Report and a veriety of researched literature, it is necessary to add the technological sustainability to these platforms, because the general development and sustainability are impossible without development of (industrial) technology. This concept of sustainability is primarily related to the balance between the consumption of resources and reproduction of these same resources (Stofleth Danny, 2016). Moreover, it is also related to "the goal of sustainable development", which is "to enable all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life, without compromising the quality of life of future generations“. (NAW , 2015:2) Each of the above five (5) pillars of sustainable development certainly contributes positively or negatively to the competitiveness of tourist destinations, depending on its characteristics and potential. Although the mentioned pillars clearly represent the determinants of the sustainable development, it is necessary to provide more in-depth explanation.
“Sustainable tourism is a profitable business under terms acceptable to all parties. It is an investment in quality, not quantity. It is the cooperation with the local community with the aim of joint destination development. It is preservation of natural and non-renewable energy resources. It is to ensure the economic development of the local population. It is to ensure the employment throughout the year. It is the preservation of indigenous ways of life and traditions, and it is the protection of the environment and preservation of space.“ (Bjelavac, Silajdžić, 2016:17) Such "Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of tourists and local residents, at the same time conserving resources for future development. Also, this development implies managing in a way to meet the basic economic and social requirements while preserving cultural integrity, essential ecological processes and biological diversity." (Bjelavac, Silajdžić, 2016:4)
Ecological aspects of sustainable tourism development represent a problem in any destination, but they can also be seen as the potential, depending on the nature of problems and the solutions given by the local government with respect to the useage of natural resources and their conservation. Mihalič (2000) indicate that environmental quality is “destination competitiveness factor” (2000:66) , but “not all schemes are equally appropriate for increasing the environmental competitiveness” (2000:76) For example, Green branding can cause both, bad and good impacts. Also, “in addition to environmental managerial e!orts, the destination competitiveness can be enhanced through certain environmental marketing activities” (2000:76). Political support is also worthy.
Technological sustainability is relate to technological processes within the tourism and complementary industries (agriculture, energy, transport, processing industries), without which tourism would mainly not work. This can be relate to the environmental problems, such as technological level of treatment and disposal of waste, hot water production, heating and cooling, air pollution and the problem of availability and quality of the Internet.
Social aspect of sustainability in tourism is very complex and can / must include the various aspects of social sustainability. Such as: education of the local population, the involvement of local people in decision-development and sustainable spatial planning, fiscal levies and fines for polluters of the environment, thus providing jobs and the competitiveness of local businesses, while impacting on the quality of life of local residents, etc.
Economic aspects of sustainability are necessary to be assessed from the following perspectives:
(1) Profitability of the business operations,
(2) Concept of "natural capital" (Franck-Dominique Vivien, 2008)
(3) Innovative and productive economy that delivers high levels of employment (NAW, 2015)
(4) Economic growth "without remnant".
(1) Profitability of the business operations, related to sustainability, should be based on the efficient business operations. But not with the unacceptable ratio of capital and liabilities in favor of long-term liabilities that represents a problem of successful business, but from the accumulation of capital by the standards and criteria of business operations that are related to labor productivity, efficiency and profitability.
(2) The concept of “natural capital” is necessary to take into account since, „in accordance with the tradition started by Harold Hotelling (1931), nature is considered to be a particular form of capital. Although it was only hinted at one in texts in the 1970s, the concept of “natural capital” began to be more clearly defined from the late 1990s forward, so that it has now become part of neoclassical theorists’ line of thinking concerning economic growth. As „W. Rostow (1978:116) wrote: “Never again will the environment be taken for granted as a free good“. (Franck-Dominique Vivien, 2008.)
(3) When it comes to innovative and productive economy its main role is in delivering the high levels of employment (NAW, 2015).
(4) Economic growth "without remnant" should be based on the concept of growth that does not borrow/debit or in some other (i.e. economically / financially) possible way does not overload the community for a long time "transferring" their obligations to the next generation.
In compliance with all of the above mentioned, for the sustainable development of tourist destinations Ten (10) Melbourne Principles (Summit UN EPDTIE, Johannesburg, 2002) hold an important place since they stress the necessity to:
1. Provide a long-term vision for cities based on: sustainability; intergenerational, social, economic and political equity; and their individuality.
2. Achieve long-term economic and social security.
3. Recognize the intrinsic value of biodiversity and natural ecosystems, and protect and restore them.
4. Enable communities to minimize their ecological footprint.
5. Build on the characteristics of ecosystems in the development and nurturing of healthy and sustainable cities.
6. Recognize and build on the distinctive characteristics of cities, including their human and cultural values, history and natural systems.
7. Empower people and foster participation.
8. Expand and enable cooperative networks to work towards a common, sustainable future.
9. Promote sustainable production and consumption, through appropriate use of environmentally sound technologies and effective demand management.
10. Enable continual improvement, based on accountability, transparency and good governance.
However, in relation to the topic of this paper, tourist activity is not necessarily present only in large and/or urban areas. On the contrary, escape into the nature and rural areas, today is sought in the forms and quantities as never before, especially since the concentration of population in big cities is large and the living conditions stimulate demand for nature in terms of intrinsic motivation. Therefore, tourist activity has the potential and provides numerous jobs and prosperity of many smaller urban areas and sparsely populated areas, including small living communities in distant places.
Sports tourism, for these reasons, can have a significant share in the motivation of tourist arrivals, particularly from the point of the need for movement and unity with nature. Namely, sports tourism is part of the tourist activity and/or industry and its supply and demand, so as such it should be considered. In this sense, sustainable tourism is only the basis and framework on which sustainable sports tourism should be based.
By development of sports activities and sport as a lifestyle, sport has become more and more a part of activities that tourists use in the destinations of their travels. In that sense, share and role of sport in the tourism product are issues of importance to each tourist destination. Especially in those areas where the weather conditions are a major indicator of the tourist season. Each attraction and activity that would lengthen the main season, as well as the preseason and post-season, is desirable for each destination that has been seriously engaged in the planning and management of its own tourist supply. However, to make such supply, that includes a variety of attractions and activities, it is not enough to simply have it. The attractiveness of the destination does not come by itself, but is achieved by planning, so efforts are necessary. On this point sustainable tourism come in to the focus.
This paper deals with possible attractions and activities relating to sport and recreation and other sub- areas of sport for the purposes of tourism supply. For this kind of supply, planning based on sustainable development, which includes a variety of studies and investments, is necessary. The essential questions on which the analysis and planning of sports and recreational or leisure time facilities should be based on, thus providing the accurate answers, are:
• To what extent sports tourism can really affect the tourism product as a decisive motive for tourist arrivals?
• What are the possible achievements of sports tourism?
• Is it even realistic to expect significant effects of sport tourism?
• What are the global trends?
• What significance has supply of facilities for sports and recreation and leisure for a specific destination?
• and other non-mentioned issues.
Viewed from the commercial side of tourism activities, the investments that have no predictable return on investment (ROI) are not acceptable. Also, in order to make investments that gain greater effects based on "minimum input maximum output" principle, it is necessary to use a methodology that ensures a systematic approach to the problem and sustainable use of all resources available to any tourist destination - from infrastructural, organizational, human, financial, material, IT, to the natural resources. It is necessary to design such scope of potentials methodologically.
“Responsible implementation of sustainable tourism development strategies and triggers should contribute to the local community wellbeing and welfare” (Mihalič, 2018). Also, discussing importance of tourism to a destination’s economy Kotler et.al. (2003:718) recognize infrastructure as one of postictal for tourism development. Therefore, this paper is focused on the contribution in this direction. According to this mentioned factors, it is obvious that local community and infrastructure are important for economic and sustainable development. Also, those factors can be connected to perception of some destination by their local residents, cultural heritage and natural resources (because of lack of sport infrastructure).
This paper deals with the basic factors and resources important for decision-making, planning and development of sports tourism and encouraging the development of methodological processes for sports-tourism destination sustainable development planning. The purpose of this paper requires review of those studies that had been focused on the competitiveness of the destination and the detection of those factors and resources of competitiveness, related to sports, which are major contributors to such development. However, in this paper observed researches should be considered from the point of incomplete correlation with the idea of this paper. Methodological planning processes should consider what affects the development of the destination and its competitiveness in the long term. But, it should also respect the part which relates to the development of sports tourism products, that are only a segment of the total supply of a destination (whether smaller or larger segment, or more or less important). For this reason, the proposed resources and factors are with limited range, and cited researches have limited contact with elements of sports-tourism supply and demand.
There are numerous studies that have been conducted in the world, concerning the competitiveness of the destination. Some, to author of this paper, available and selected researches, comprise of a range of resources and factors essential for the competitiveness of destinations, and a smaller number include those factors and resources that are related to sports and/or physical activities and attractions.
A whole range of authors contributed to the various factors of competitiveness and models. There are many studies of models of competitiveness in tourism such as: -Calgary Model of Competitiveness (CMC) in Tourism advanced by Crouch and Ritchie (1993); -Chon and Mayer (1995) WES model in which price as main marketing component and fiscal & monetary policy; -Poon's model where service sector orientation was based on innovations and differentiation; -Dwyer's and Kim's model (2004) based on quantitative factors but also on qualitative factors such as attractiveness, image and reputation of destination; Borda's model based on factors of quality, socio-economic and demographic factors (Mazurek, M. 2014) etc. One such model was presented by Mihalič T. in her research in 2013, based on review of a number of references, such as Mihalic and Kaspar 1996; Ritchie and Crouch 2000, 2003; UNWTO 2004; Inskeep 1991; Dwyer and Kim 2004., all in order to set up a model that contains Tourism Environmental Resources (TENV) and Tourism-Created Resources (TCRE).
Of course, all those studies that are strategic documents for the development of particular urban areas should certainly be taken into consideration. Both, small and large.
In that sense, a desk research was conducted. The research involved different linguistic speaking areas such as English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Slavic and German speaking area. The research encompassed different documents of strategic development plans including terms sport and sports tourism. Different countries has different approach to take care about sport tourism development. For example, in Canada the informal govern body is Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance (CSTA) but in Poland is in charge formal government body Ministry of sport and tourism. In Canada it is very common that even small places have Strategic plans for sports tourism. This so, because Canadian Sport Tourism Alliance issued “Canada sport tourism template” as a development strategy guide. In other countries, there is no such guide, but many small towns and other urban places and cities have entrusted the development of strategies to agencies and professionals. Those are places, regions and countries such as Leduc, Prince Georg, Vancouver, Canberra, Toulouse, Lozere, Barcelona, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Appalaches, Quebec, Provence Alpes, British Columbia, Valongo, Bas-Saint-Laurent, Sines, Portugal, Guadalupe, Sao Tome & Principe, Surrey, Jamaica, St. Gallen, Koln, Dusseldorf, Mainz, Seefeld, Caribbean, Iran, Charlevoix, Scotland, UK, Paraguay, Brazil, Russia, Kazakhstan, etc.
All these strategic documents more or less have a similar structure of content.
In Sport Tourism Strategic Master Plan Leduc 2014 – 2024 (Millier et.al., 2014) content include Key Factors Driving Location of Sporting Competitions, Sporting Facilities, Motivation to Host, Amenities facilities, Volunteers, Experience, Business Plan. In “Strategies to Optimize Sports Tourism Opportunities for Sustainable Development in the Caribbean” (Delpy, Paulton, 2016) conternt include Definitions, Facts & Figures, Sport Tourism Objectives, Success Factors, Case Studies, Recommendations. In “Sport Tourism Presentation Developing a Sport Tourism Strategy” (Midland, Kingston, 2013) content include Legacies of Sport Tourism, Economic Development, Infrastructure Development, Community visibility and spirit, Volunteer and leadership development, New partnership development between sport, businesses, tourism sector and communities. According to authors of PUR Pican, an acceptable model should contain the state of the art, the experience in the country and abroad, the comparative advantages of region, the citizens' wishes, the public and private sector's view of their needs and expectations, and the economic justification of a particular project without which the projects themselves do not make sense. (Bala, PUR Pićan Municipality, 2015:72). Similar content is in “Sport Hosting Vancouver Action Plan”, in “Sport tourism (Tourism business essentials) The essential guide to understanding and developing sport tourism in British Columbia” (Cowared, D., et.al., 2013) and in already mentioned "Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020".
In short, those development strategic plans contain more or less very similar structure: (structural) analysis of the situation (state of the art), infrastructure analysis, objectives and vision, key driving factors, development trends and measures, tourism industry value chain, competitive and/or comparative analysis, development projects or programs, best practice and case study, economy benefits, effects and impacts, polls and analysis, financial aspects and recommendations.
In addition to analysis of development plans, it is necessary to analyze different authors who have dealt with that or similar topic. Mihalič, T. (2013) carries out the idea-model Destination Environmental and Tourism-Created Resources that separates the tourist supply on the infrastructure and super-structure (services), Natural and Cultural resources and Social resources. The last two represent in this paper previously explained two of five pillars of sustainable development. However, tourism-created resources correspond to the group of tourism-relevant infrastructure (tourism buildings and structures) and super-structure (tourism services)“ (Mihalič, T., 2013:620). „The elements of this group are divided into two subgroups. The first is tourism infrastructure, which encompasses the different tourism buildings and structures that enable the production of tourism services, such as hotels, casinos, marinas, sport facilities, and national parks. The second is tourism super-structure, which encompasses tourism services, such as half board, casino entertainment, marina mooring, golfing, and visiting national parks, all of which are enabled by the tourism infrastructure (Planina and Mihalič 2002)“ (Mihalič 2013:619).
By its nature, sports facilities in some destination may be “ultimately” active or passive (Novak, 2006: 58). Sports infrastructure for active purposes implies the active use of material but also human resources in the function of recreation, education, competition or rehabilitation i.e. direct participation in various sports activities (in according to above mentioned definition of infrastructure). Sports facilities for passive use implies passive use of material and human resources in the function of entertainment i.e. indirect participation, passively as a spectator of various sports activities. Passive use of sports facilities/infrastructure” on the supply side implies that interaction of all stakeholders responsible for full services and functioning of sports infrastructure on the supply side. In case of synergistic action, these factors are important generators effects of sport tourism. So, significant factors of potential competitiveness could be main purpose of sports facilities for active or passive use of their visitors. Almost same approach was pointed out in “Strategies to Optimize Sports Tourism Opportunities for Sustainable Development in the Caribbean”¸(Delpy, Paulton, 2016). There was recognized travel to play sport (Active: Competition/Recreation) and travel to watch sport (Passive: Amateur/Professional). In addition, there was recognized travel to visit sport attractions (Nostalgia).
Tsai, Song and Wong (2009:524), among other issues, discuss the destination competitiveness denoting that „A destination may be considered competitive if it can attract and satisfy potential tourists“. They „listed 16 models that have substantially contributed to the tourism destination competitiveness debate“ (Mihalič, 2013:614) such as: country image, accessibility, attractiveness, safety (Cizmar and Weber, 2000), inter-enterprise competition between airlines, tour operators, hotels and other tourism services (Ritchie & Crouch, 2000), destination competitiveness based on the notion that it is a cluster of tourist attractions, infrastructure, equipment, services and organization that jointly determines what a destination has to offer to its visitors (Bordas, 1994), objectively measured variables such as visitor numbers, market share, tourist expenditure, employment, value added by the tourism industry, as well as subjectively measured variables such as „richness of culture and heritage“, quality of the tourism experience“ etc.“ (Heath, 2003:9). „Ritchie and Crouch (2000) argued that competitiveness is illusory without sustainability.“ etc. (Tsai, Song & Wong, 2009:525)
Vodeb, K. (2014) in her research introduces the importance of the standpoint of the local population for the competitiveness of the destination.
Armenski, T. et al (2012) proposed a model that could be, within accessible desk research, with the idea closest to this paper. Their „Integrated model defines the six main categories of competitiveness:
- inherited resources (INH),
- created resources (CRE),
- supporting factors and resources (SUP),
- destination management (MAN),
- demand conditions (DEM) and
- situational conditions (SIT).“ (Armenski, T. et.al. 2012:488)
Each of above mentioned resources, factors and conditions contains a number of various constituent elements. Some of them are related to sport-touristic supply and demand. They are: Historic sites, Heritage, Flora and fauna, Artistic and architectural features, Unspoiled nature, National parks, Variety of cuisine, Special events/festivals, Health resorts & spa, Winter based activities, Diversity of shopping experience, Rural tourism, Entertainment, Nature based activities, Congress tourism, Sport facilities, Adventure activities, Accomodation, Recreation facilities, Tourism guidance and information, Existence of tourism programs for visitors, Airports, Amusement/Theme parks, Water based activities, Hospitality of residents towards tourists, Health/medical facilities to serve tourists, Accessibility of destination, Appreciation of service quality importance, Destination vision reflecting tourists values, Development of effective destination branding, Educational structure/profile of employees in tourism, Enterpreneurial qualities of local tourism businesses, Extension of foreign investment in destination tourism industry, Quality in performing tourism services, Quality of research input to tourism policy, planning, development Resident support for tourism development, accordance between destination products and tourists preferences, Overall destination image, Investment environment, Manageres capabilities, Securety/safety of visitors, Value for money in accomodation, Value Value for money in tourism destination experience (Armenski, T. et.al., 2014:491-497) and many others.
However, Novak (2006, 2010) in his researches was focused on the role and potential of sport in tourism product, analyzing inductively determined model of three value measures and impact factors of sport in the development of tourism. Three value measures combine:
· establishing a functional system of various types of tourism with the motive of sport
· identifying potential opportunities of implementation of various motives of sport regarding to required investment
· spatial distribution of accommodation capacities.
· Factors of influence of sport for development of tourism:
· emphasize the importance and role of sports facilities in categorization of accommodation capacities
· emphasize the development trends of sports-tourism supply such as ethics of natural nutrition, trend of return to nature, ecological humanism
· trend of health and psychological and physical stability
· effect on growth in number of tourists and the perception of Croatia as a tourist country
· effect on quality standard of tourist destinations
· effect on sport as an instrument of stimulation on investment policy for developing tourism supply emphasizes the effects of employment caused by sports supply and other (Novak, 2006:60).
Inductively established model with three value measures can affect detection of potential opportunities of resources that destinations have at disposition for tourism development with the motive of sports. The characteristics of the environment dictate the development potential of sports facilities. It is not certain that large investments represent a greater attraction for the individuals (Novak, 2006:56-57).
In his research Kušen E. (2002) extract several factors and resources in “Tourism resource base” which comprise the following components:
• Tourism attraction base
• Other direct tourist resources
• Indirect tourism resources
“Tourist attraction base” are all potential and actual tourist attractions in the destination. “Other direct tourist resources” are tourist, hotel and restaurant facilities, accompanying facilities, personnel, zones, agencies, travel organizations, publicity, PR and information, education of the local residents and attractiveness of the neighboring tourist destinations. “Indirect tourism resources” combine preserved environment, geographic location, traffic connections, communal infrastructure, quality of layout, facilities design, the environment and green spaces, peacetime situation and political stability.
Also, Kušen E. (2002) determined second group of factors and resources under name „Contribution to functional systematization of types of tourism”. That was an attempt to systematize all of selective tourism i.e. driving forces in motivational form. Considering the sport and business activities that are immanent to these sports activities, Contribution is modified, supplemented and adjusted (Novak, 2006:57). Tourism and sports are associated with maritime, continental, city and ubiquitous spaces and with facilities related to sports, recreational and competitive activities that make a large part of the motives. Nevertheless, in accordance with the purpose and objective of this paper, the functional systematization is necessary to supplement with activities that are not substantially covered in all sub- areas of sport. In fact, as stated above sub-areas of sport include competitive sport, sport recreation, education and science in sport, kinesitherapy and sports for disabled persons and other business sporting activities. However, such systematization significantly extends the capabilities for each destination separately, depending on local preferences, abilities and needs.
In addition, based on all of reviewed studies and papers it is possible to conclude that there is lack of some factors and resources. On the ground of work and research experience, that lack is possible to supplement with certain factors and resources, here presented:
1. Perception of destination by the local residents
2. Operational converting of perception into a coherent vision of development with:
o Spatial Plans
o Statutes, regulations and other acts of law
o Subvention measures and incentive funds
o Investment plans
o Structure of supply
o The desired level of quality and working hours
o Branding destinations in accordance with the level & quality of supply and desired perception
3. Perception of destination by actual and potential guests
4. Cultural heritage and traditional relationship of domicile residents and guests
5. Demographic and educational cornerstone of competitiveness
6. The role and effectiveness of the tourism govern bodies
7. Natural resources and the terrain configuration
8. The complexity of the desired sports and tourism supply
9. The image of destination itself and of the country of domicile according to its sports achievements
10. Value for money
Above listed factors and resources is possible to name it as “Intangible resource base” because of its primary immaterial character.
Conceptually, the term “method” is an analytical thought process, based on logical thinking that helps in correct reasoning and cognition on certain principles. On the other hand research methodology is a system of these methods and principles (Anic, Goldstein, 1999), which, in this case, should be used for purposes of extracting some important (but kind of universal) resources and factors important for each tourist destination. Availability of the facts and the data is not enough, because it is crucial thought process by which the data was analyzed in the process of solving a particular problem (Bazala, A., 1978).
In this paper, empty hypothesis was set as formal goal of research. Namely, by definition empty hypothesis is such a hypothesis that cannot be verified, checked or tested, even though there is a chance that later it would be found to be correct. (Zelenika, 2000:422). Besides that, in this paper for research was taken explanatory method. This kind of method should be used if the goal is to seek the answer for a question that sought to explain the presumed causal links in real-life that are too complex for the survey or experimental strategies (Yin, 2003; Baxter & Jack, 2008:547)
So, what was concluded? And, what are the crucial findings of this paper?
It is clear that a model of sustainable development represents a form of sustainable competitiveness. For this reason, the definition of a model of sustainable sports tourism for each destination is specific. The resources and factors of competitiveness are different.
Based on desk research and above mentioned researches, groups of factors and resources of competitiveness that can or should affect the consumption of guests in the destination (named as "Basis for planning") were extracted as follows:
1. Tourist resource base
2. Economic aspects of sustainability
3. Contribution to functional systematization of selective types of tourism
4. Ten (10) Melbourne Principles
5. Active and passive users of the sports facilities
6. Intangible resource base
7. Other unlisted impacts of local character
1. First group of factors and resources “Tourist resource base” (Kušen, E., 2002) comprise the following components: Tourist attraction base, Other direct tourist resources and Indirect tourism resources.
2. Economic aspects of sustainability comprise Profitability of the business operations, Concept of "natural capital" (Franck-Dominique Vivien, 2008), Innovative and productive economy that delivers high levels of employment (NAW, 2015) and Economic growth "without remnant"
3. “Contribution to functional systematization of selective types of tourism” (Kušen, 2002) was modified, supplemented and adjusted (Novak, 2006) considering the sport and business activities that are immanent to sports activities that provoke tourist arrivals.
4. Ten (10) Melbourne Principles (UN EPDTIE, 2002) comprise a long-term vision for cities, long- term economic and social security, intrinsic value of biodiversity and natural ecosystems, minimize ecological footprint, sustainable construction, empower people and foster participation, sustainable networking, sustainable production and consumption and continual improvement.
5. Active and passive users of the sports facilities (Novak, 2006, Delpy, Paulton, 2016)) implies sports infrastructure for different kind of users. For active purposes i.e. direct use of facilities, participating in various sports activities and travel to play sport competition or recreation. Passive use implies indirect participation, passive participation as a spectator of various sports activities and travel to watch sport amateur or professional. In addition, there was recognized travel to visit sport attractions (Nostalgia).
6. Intangible resource base (Heath, 2003; Vodeb, 2014; Kotler, 2003; Mihelič, 2018; Novak) implies perception of local residents, spatial plans, regulations, subventions, investments, quality, branding, guests opinion, heritage, education, effectiveness, natural resources, supply and demand, image and value for money.
7. Finally, seventh group of isolated factors and resources are “Other unlisted factors and resources” which depend on specific local character and cannot be generalized.
The basic idea of this paper was to extract those significant resources and factors of competitiveness and sustainable development that should be of significance for a particular tourist destination in terms of sport tourism development.
The purpose of this paper would be the application of these resources and factors in the planning of the development of a sport tourism of a particular destination. Those destinations that have decided to use sport as main travel motive and/or as supplement to the existing supply of various services. These sport attractions should attract potential guests and transform them into the actual buyer of the services of some tourist destination.
For this purpose, a desk research has been conducted in order to investigate numerous works that directly or indirectly relate to the topic of this paper. Those researches and papers processed certain factors and resources of competitiveness and sustainable development, naturally for the purpose and objectives of their research.
However, the results of their researches, related to sport tourism, are the foundation of this paper. The results of those studies were put into the function of this paper, so some resources and factors related to the topic of this paper were extracted.
Those partially separated data were integrated into a single unit in this paper. Of course, this single unit is immanent to this research, according to the perspectives and experience of the author of this paper.
So, what can be concluded from this paper?
First. Globally, tourism as business activity is one of the generators of many national economies.
Second. Tourism as a business activity (industry) has a significant growth year after year. Sports tourism has a significant share and its annual growth is many times larger than tourism in general.
Third. When demand is rising, supply rises and there is a need to think about numerous factors of competitiveness and resources that can be used in that sense. Namely, the tourists’ consumption depends on the variety of supply. When supply is more unique, it is more likely of larger arrivals.
Fourth. Sport as a notion, is not sufficiently comprehended, so in various development studies, some sub-sectors of sport are treated separately, although they are part of sport and sports activities.
Fifth. Sport as activity generates and promotes numerous economic effects and transforms sports into an economic category and business activity.
Sixth. It is not enough to have a sports infrastructure, because it does not mean much for itself, so there must be a system that works and generates positive economic effects. In addition, expensive investments are not always necessary, when it is possible to use natural resources and generate, without greater investment, the same economic benefit.
Seventh. A small number of foreign people come to Croatia for sport. Main motives are mostly some others.
Eighth. Guests in Croatia spend only 3 € a day on the sport, which is very low consumption. The reason for this could be extremely high dissatisfaction with the wealth of sports content - low satisfaction.
Ninth. Croatia has an extreme seasonality, especially in the summer months. It is clear that it is necessary to design such a (sports) tourist supply that would extend the tourist season, in other seasons of the year (spring, autumn and winter)
Tenth. The concept of sustainable development focuses on the pillars of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, social, technological and cultural component. Sport tourism in this sense, must necessarily cover all the pillars of sustainable development with its concept.
Eleventh. Sustainable tourism refers to the profitability of tourism, but on the basis of sustainable development and the benefits of the local population, meeting the needs of tourists and sustainably preserving local resources.
Twelfth. Economic aspects of sustainability should include profitability, natural capital, employment and growth without remnant.
Thirteenth. There are numerous studies of tourism development and sport tourism. Apart from professional and scientific papers, for this paper were important strategic development plans of small towns, cities, regions and countries. Some countries are in this sense more advanced and have developed a system for improving sport tourism.
Fourteenth. From the studied papers and studies, some resources and factors were extracted that could be of great importance for the purpose of this paper.
Fifteenth. Of all the extracted factors and resources, a compilation was made and called a "Basis for planning". The content of the Basis includes, in the author's opinion, those resources and factors that should influence the supply and demand of sports tourism products and services.
Therefore, most of the results shown in proposed "Base for planning" represent a compilation of proposed resources and factors of competitiveness. The proposed resources and factors of competitiveness considering what sports-tourism can offer, should be the basis for decision making process on potential investment projects in each destination. The use of the proposed "Basis for planning" should have practical implications. Those practical implications should be reflected in structural changes, consequent to the structure of supply and potentially would cause changes in the structure of guests and their demand i.e. consumption.
Empty hypothesis, by its definition, cannot be accepted nor rejected.
Further exploration of factors and resources important for better economic results of tourist destinations, especially in the field of sport tourism, are recommended.