Javascript is required
AKDEMIR, Ali et al., (2018), Strategic Management, Anadolu University publication, Eskişehir.
ALAGOZ, A ve CERAN, Y. (2007) Logistics Cost Management: Logistics Costs and Logistics Cost Accounting, Journal of Management Sciences,.
AYAZ, I, and others, (2018) Examination of Communication Skills of Personnel Working in Logistics Sector,.
BAKI, B., (2004) Logistics Management and Logistics Sector Analysis. Trabzon: Lega Bookstore.
CAMPBELL, A. & YEUNG, S. (1991). Creating A Sense Of Mission. Long Range Planing. 24 (4), 10-20.
CARROLL, A. B. & BUCHHOLZ, A. K. (2008). Business And Society: Ethicsand Stakeholder Management. Ohio: South Western College Publishing. [Google Scholar]
AGILE, S. KAYA, S. "Turkey's logistics potential in terms of Izmir and Logistics Operations Status (SWOT) Analysis", Izmir Chamber of Commerce, the R & D Newsletter, November 2010-sectoral, 22-28.
DINCER, O, (1998) Strategic Management and Business Policy, Beta Basım Yayım Dagıtım A.Ş., Istanbul, p.6.
ERDAL, M. and SAYGILI, M. (2007) Management-Organization and Fleet Management in Logistics Businesses, UTIKAD Publications, Istanbul,.
EREN, E, Strategic Management and Business Policy, Beta Basım Yayım Dagıtım A.Ş., Istanbul, 2000, p.1.
ERK, B. (2014) Logistics Industry and Competitiveness in Turkey. ASSAM International Refereed Journal (ASSAM - UHAD), Kilis 7 Aralık University, FEAS, Department of Economics,.
http://eab.ege.edu.tr/pdf/3/C1-S1-2-M2.pdf (access: 10.06.2016).
http://lojistikplatform.blogspot.com/2017/04/tasmaclk-cesitleri-nendir.html(access: 10.06.2016).
http://www.logisticsclub.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2(access: 10.06.2016).
http://www.megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/moduller_pdf/Lo Lojistik%20Y%C3%B6netimi.pdf(access: 20.06.2016).
http://www.onlinedergi.com/eab/Giris.aspx (access: 19.06.2016).
http://www.sektorel.com/yazarlar/nilgun-yalim-eren/proaktif-reaktif-olmak(access: 13.06.2016).
http://www.ulasimgazetesi.com/kose-yazisi/8740/lojistikte-etkin -takim-calismasina-neden-ihtiyac-var.html(access: 11.06.2016).
IPEKGIL, O. and HERGULLU, I. (2009) Outsourcing in Logistics Functions: 3PL Logistics, nine September university social sciences institute business department production management program master's thesis,.
PEOPLE H., (1992) "in maritime transport in Turkey Major Land Plant, The Role of Institutions and Organizations" Izmir.
KOZAMI, A., (2002) Business Policy and Strategic Management, 2e, Tata McGraw-Hill Education,.
OZDENER, H., (2010) Total Quality Management in Logistics, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Kadir Has University, Istanbul,.
PORTER, M. E. (1998). On Competition, USA: Harvard Business Review Book.
POSACI, H., (2002) Strategy and Policy, p. one,.
TEK, O. and OZGUL, (2005) E. Modern Marketing Principles, Applied Management Approach, Birleşik Matbaacılık, İzmir,.
WHEELEN L. And others, (2015) Strategic Management And Business Policy Globalization, Innovation, And Sustainability, Fourteenth Edition, Pearson Education Inc.
Search
Open Access
Research article

The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses

mesut atasever1*,
semiye çürük2
1
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Logistics Management, Uşak University, 64000 Usak, Turkey
2
Uşak University, MBA Student, Turkey
Journal of Corporate Governance, Insurance, and Risk Management
|
Volume 5, Issue 2, 2018
|
Pages 78-93
Received: 05-10-2018,
Revised: 05-22-2018,
Accepted: 06-25-2018,
Available online: 07-25-2018
View Full Article|Download PDF

Abstract:

Introduction: Strategic management and its most important component, the strategic policies, and the expression of these policies and the implementation of the stated policies are very important. The purpose of this study is to examine the policy statements of the enterprises operating in the field of logistics, which is an important sector for the economy of countries, to examine whether they are current and industry-appropriate statements, and to discuss the reasons. Categorization and interpretation were preferred as methods. As a scope, only policy statements among the strategic concepts shared by the Logistics Association (LODER) member enterprises in the logistics sector have been discussed and studied. Especially in logistics enterprises, the establishment of strategic management and strategic policies, their expression, sharing and their implementation, the concepts emphasized and prioritized in the policies, and whether these concepts are up-to-date and appropriate to the sector should be seen as a problem. According to the findings, an important part of the policy statements are about customers and customer-related concepts. It has been observed that the concepts prioritized in policy statements are not specific to the business, which are popular and shared in most businesses. The fact that the concepts examined are not up to date causes businesses to stay away from the concepts they really need. The fact that the stated policies are not specific to the business will not benefit the strategic management of the business in details. This study is expected to be beneficial to academics and administrators working in this field.

Keywords: Logistics, Strategy, Strategic management, Policies, Strategic policies

1. Introduction

Turkey and other countries in foreign trade, especially exports, is playing an important role in increasing the economic growth rate. Therefore, the logistics sector is developing in a way that will remain on the agenda by increasing its importance. Logistics enterprises should review the problems they encounter, manage them strategically in order not to encounter these problems again, and develop and implement strategic policies accordingly. These policies can be related to all processes in the enterprise or only to a certain department and unit.

Achieving and maintaining satisfactory levels in exports is proportional to high value-added product exports and the high diversity of the products and the market. Foreign trade transactions, which display an increasingly complex appearance, have increased the importance of the logistics sector (Erkan, 2014).

The concept of logistics is an important building block of the entire transportation sector (road transport, air transport, maritime transport, rail transport, river transport, pipeline transport).

In this study, the success of the logistics business in Turkey, the importance of sustainability of human factor, quality, important role in the development of priorities for the environment and the company is focused on the importance of strategic policy.

Strategic policies guide businesses in terms of behaviors and practices to be implemented in the short and medium term in order to achieve the long-term vision of strategic management, prioritized issues are critical and vital concepts for businesses.

In this respect, what kind of expressions are really needed for work, businesses, which should not be policy statements, which statements are increasing in importance in which sector? It will be useful in terms of guiding businesses in the answers of these and similar questions. The study consists of the concept of logistics, policies and importance in strategic management, application, findings, results and discussion.

2. Literature

2.1 Strategy and Strategic Policies

Strategy, as a concept that has historically entered the literature, is the work of designing and managing the operations of armies in a war. According to this definition, strategy is a general war plan. Strategy is to mobilize, to put the army into the war order by making an order or planning and making intellectual operations (Eren, 2000).

The concept of strategy has begun to take place in social sciences in the field of economics since the 1930s and 40s. The concept started to be used in the field of business management after the 1950s. In the field of business, strategy is used as a concept that regulates the relations of businesses with their environment and activates all resources dynamically and provides efficiency in order to act competitive (Dincer, 1998).

Considering the above definitions, the business strategy can be defined jointly as follows: "Strategy is the process of constantly analyzing the business and its environment and determining the objectives and tools that will adapt to it, planning the activities and reorganizing the necessary resources in order to direct the business and provide competitive advantage." (Dincer, 1998).

The word politics is of ancient Greek origin. In terms of the word, it means "to supervise a job". The policy, which is used as the equivalent of "politics" in the Turkish literature, has mostly taken place in the field of public administration and has been used with the meaning of "conducting a business belonging to the society according to a certain form and method". The concept of policy is defined in the dictionary as "a specific method or pattern of behavior chosen from among many alternatives to guide decisions today and in the future" or "a long-term plan that includes general goals and  acceptable methods".

The definition of policy in the field of business management means "a set of principles guiding managers while making decisions". These principles guide managers in their decisions and their work, and create an enterprise-level plan to achieve specific goals. (Dincer, 1998). Strategic business policy tries to integrate knowledge and experience with middle and senior management. (Kozami, 2002)

There are varying degrees of policy in all businesses. if not managed well, political maneuvers will consume the organization's time, disrupt organizational goals, and shift the energy of employees to unnecessary directions. From time to time, political prejudices and personal preferences can become part of decision-making processes. Intra-organizational policies affect strategy selection decisions in all organizations (Akdemir: 2018) In addition, policies, mission form the components of the strategy together with the strategy, purpose and values in operation. (Campbell and Yeung, 1991: 16).

Individuals or groups that are affected by the policies, decisions and practices of businesses and that affect these decisions, policies, behaviors and practices are called stakeholders (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2008: 84).

Policies, like annual targets, have an important place in the implementation of strategies. Because the policies determine the expectations of the business managers and employees. Again, policies contribute to the coordination and operation of departments in a consistent and coordinated manner within and between departments.

Strategy and policies are terms that are confused with each other in the business literature. Because it is not possible to separate these two terms with exact lines. Policy is a general plan and path to be followed to achieve guidance and goals. In this respect, it creates the list of principles and total rules related to applications. Principles and rules are application solutions that can be applied to situations that do not allow initiative. (Eren, 2000).

Strategy is a more general concept that includes policy (Posacı, 2002). Strategy is the set of decisions made according to the conditions of uncertainty, in which all possible situations cannot be predicted in advance by focusing on the future. Policy consists mostly of specific environment decisions that are defined and reinforced by information management. For example; The wage policy applied in case of overtime or sickness is applied to all personnel and no separate decision is made for each individual situation. However, strategic decisions are taken in an environment that must be audited due to the variable details in terms of details and in which direction it will change.

Strategy is a concept above politics, more about planning, forecasting the future. Policy and strategy are similar in some ways. However, strategy is about goals. Strategic effectiveness is in the form of directing all current tangible and intangible assets to the goal. In politics, although there is a commitment to purpose, it may not be as strong as strategy. Although the political practices are purposeful in the final aggregate, not every policy may be aimed at general goals. (Eren, 2000).

The strategy hierarchy, three levels of strategy (corporate, business, and functional) are typically found in large businesses. Starting with the corporate level, each strategy level creates the strategic environment of the next level in the business. This means that corporate-level goals, strategies, and policies form an important part of a department's or business unit's environment. Therefore, the department or unit's goals, strategies and policies should be formulated in a way that helps the implementation of the plans (Wheelen and others, 2015).

2.2 Logistics

There are different definitions related to the concept of logistics. In general, the concept of logistics is taking the product from the point of production, storing it, stocking it, delivering the product to the desired place and in the desired form, and performing all these works in a planned, efficient and fast manner. In the logistics industry, minimum stock, minimum cost, high quality, traceability and sustainability are the main objectives. The geographical situation of the countries is very important in terms of the development of the sector. Although Turkey is geographically quite lucky, it lacks the required quantity of capacity. (Cevik and Kaya, 2010).

The frequently used definition of logistics was made by The Council of Logistics  Management (CLM). Accordingly, logistics; It is the effective and efficient planning, implementation, transportation, storage and control of all kinds of products, services and information flows in the supply chain from the source to the consumption point in order to meet the needs of customers (logisticsclub.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article & sid=2,Accessed:10.06.2016).

As a logistics sector, it is an area that is speed-oriented, requires highly organized and planning is very important. Logistics enterprises have undertaken an important role as specialized enterprises in this field by easing the burden of production and trade enterprises. Thus, they have the opportunity to  focus more on their main areas of production and trade businesses and their basic skills.

It is one of the components of the logistics supply chain. Supply Chain Management consists of successive components such as a chain link, as added. It is a component that includes determining the products we need, researching them, purchasing them, making a contract for this, preparing  the product to be supplied, arranging the logistics services for the transportation of this product and paying the costs at these stages. This study is unique in that it has been done on the logistics sector and its policy statements. There is no study in this direction in the literature.

3. Application

3.1 Purpose and Method

The aim of this study is to examine the policy statements of the enterprises operating in the field of logistics, which is an important sector for the country's economy, to examine whether they are current and industry-appropriate statements, and to discuss the reasons.

As a method, data collection, categorization and interpretation methods were used in this study. The policy statements shared by 50 companies that are members of the Loder Logistics Association1 were taken. It has been determined that each enterprise uses more than one policy statement. Policy statements are arranged one under the other, and similar ones are collected in one statement.

Businesses without policy statements were not taken into account. No sub-sector preference has been made. The data obtained were ranked in descending order, categorized and interpreted according to the frequency.

3.2 Findings

In this study, conducted on a sample of selected logistics company in Turkey, the company's policies are seen mostly they stood on the concepts given in the table. The fact that the study has been conducted on successful logistics enterprises increases the importance of the policies followed by  these enterprises. It can be predicted that the policies followed by these enterprises have a significant share in their success.

The logistics sector is a sector that can be defined as the blood vessels of the country's economy and produces important production stages such as transportation, storage, insurance, packaging, customs clearance, stock management, value added services. In logistics enterprises, strategic management and strategic policies are formed, expressed, shared and shared, the concepts emphasized and given priority in the policies, and whether these concepts are up-to-date and appropriate for the sector should be seen as a problem. The study was conducted based on this reason.

Since the policy statements are too many in number on the basis of words and sentences, expressions that contain each other and are very similar to each other and different sentences expressing the same situation are collected under a single policy statement.

Strategic policies are very important in terms of how they are expressed, what they emphasize, what they prioritize, whether they are taken seriously, as concepts that direct the business in the short and medium term and determine the implementation styles of strategies.

Similar expressions of the shared statements have been combined into a single statement for easy evaluation (Table 1).

Table 1. Similar expressions turned into combined in a single expression

Similar Expressions

Combined in A Single Expression

Customer satisfaction, employee focus, customer care, high importance to employees, Customer and employee oriented

To be customer and employee oriented

Quality focus, quality in service, giving importance to quality, quality service

Quality service

Focus on development, continuous development, continuous improvement

Continuous improvement

Paying attention to productivity, productivity, efficiency.

Productivity

Fast delivery, speed in delivery, speed of delivery.

Fast delivery

To adapt to technology

To adapt to technology

Being sensitive to society and the environment, sensitivity to society, sensitivity to the environment

Being sensitive to society and the environment

Reliability, being a reliable business, standing out in reliability

Reliability

Being solution oriented, being a part of the solution, not the problem,

problem solving

Being solution oriented

Adapting to innovations, compatibility, innovation and adaptation

To adapt to innovations

Continuous innovation, innovation, innovation-oriented

Continuous improvement

Working with team spirit, working with team spirit

Working with team spirit

Trained staff, giving importance to the training of the staff, developing the staff with training

Trained staff

Sustainable success, focusing on success, giving importance to continuous

success

Sustainable success

To be respectful to ethical values, first of all ethical, moral oriented

Respecting ethical values

Motivation, encouraging employees

Motivation

Effective communication, attaching importance to communication, communication focus

Effective communication

Low cost, cost priority

Lower costs

Being proactive, prepared for crises, proactive approach to crisis

Being proactive

Table 2. Most emphasized concepts in policy statements of the logistics sector (According to less usage than the most frequently used)

Policy Statements

Number of enterprises using the expression (Frequency)

Sampling Rate of Use in Enterprises (50 enterprises)

%

Number of enterprises that do not use the expression (negative frequency)

Sampling rate of enterprises that do not use the expression %

The ratio of the expression used to the total number of expressions %

1

To be customer and employee oriented

31

62

19

38

13,60

2

Quality service

30

60

20

40

13,16

3

Continuous improvement

18

36

32

64

7,89

4

Productivity

16

32

34

68

7,02

5

Fast delivery

16

32

34

68

7,02

6

To adapt to technology

14

28

36

72

6,14

7

Being sensitive to society and the environment

14

28

36

72

6,14

8

Reliability

12

24

38

76

5,26

9

Being solution oriented

11

22

39

78

4,82

10

To adapt to innovations

11

22

39

78

4,82

11

Continuous improvement

10

20

40

80

4,39

12

Working with team spirit

10

20

40

80

4,39

13

Trained staff

8

16

42

84

3,51

14

Sustainable success

8

16

42

84

3,51

15

Respecting ethical values

5

10

45

90

2,19

16

Motivation

5

10

45

90

2,19

17

Effective communication

4

8

46

92

1,75

18

Lower costs

3

6

47

94

1,32

19

Being proactive

2

4

48

96

0,88

TOTAL

228

100,00

4. Evaluating Shared Policy Statements

i-Being customer and employee oriented

The concept of being customer and employee focused was ranked as 62% with the use of 31 businesses. Its ratio to the total number of expressions is 13.60. Although it is very important that it takes the first place, it is seen that 38% of the enterprises do not use this expression and the close expressions that can replace it. It should be noted that the phrase "being customer-oriented and employee-oriented" is appropriate. However, it should be seen that 86% of the enterprises (50 enterprises including the sample) never use this expression and the close expressions that can replace it. It is a concept that moves from the eternity of customers' wishes and needs. It is not overlooked that most of the time customers are also consumers. Customers are indispensable stakeholders for businesses. Therefore, the value that businesses give to their customers is very important.

It should always be decided what will be good for the customer. Being customer-oriented does not mean being privileged. Being employee-oriented shows the value given to employees. This concept, which is mentioned 31 times in the sample, has been determined as the most used policy concept by logistics enterprises.

ii- Quality service

The concept of quality service was ranked as 60% with the use of 30 businesses in the 2nd place. Its ratio to total frequency is 13.16. Although it is very important that it is in the top ranks, it is observed that 40% of the enterprises do not use this expression and the close expressions that can replace it.

While it is positive that businesses emphasize quality as a policy, the main thing is that this policy is adopted and implemented at all levels.

iii- Continuous improvement

The concept of continuous improvement was ranked as 36% with the use of 18 enterprises in the 3rd place. Its ratio to total frequency is 7.89. Although it is very important that it is in the top ranks, it is seen that 66% of the enterprises do not use this expression and the close expressions that can replace  it. Continuous improvement is shared as a policy as well as being a quality term. Continuous improvement; It emerges as the name of process-oriented policies, not results-oriented. . Although this concept is a concept of quality, it is a concept that is valid for all enterprises that apply a process-based management strategy. It is expected to be used by all businesses as well as by logistics businesses. It is striking that the rate related to this concept is expected to be higher, but it is seen so low.

iv- Productivity

The concept of productivity, which ranks 4th, is a concept that deserves the first places. The concept of productivity was ranked as 32% with the use of 16 businesses in the 4th place. Its ratio to total frequency is 7.02. Although it is very important that it takes the first place, it is seen that 68% of the enterprises do not use this expression and the close expressions that can replace it.

v- Fast delivery

The fast delivery concept, which ranks 5th, is a critical concept for logistics businesses. Fast delivery was ranked as 32% with the use of 16 businesses in 5th place. Its ratio to total frequency is 7.02. Although it is very important that it takes the first place, it is seen that 68% of the enterprises do not use this expression and the close expressions that can replace it.

Since this concept is related to the business area, it is important for more logistics areas. It is striking that approximately one third of the sample used this policy, while the rest did not. Because fast delivery is an important success criterion for logistics businesses.

vi- To adapt to technology

The concept of adapting to technology, which ranks 6th, is an important concept for logistics enterprises. Adapting to technology took the 6th place with the use of 14 enterprises and was 28%. Its ratio to total frequency is 6.14. It is also seen that 72% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

vii-Being sensitive to society and the environment

Being sensitive to society and the environment, which is in the 7th rank, is an indispensable concept for logistics enterprises. Being sensitive to the society and the environment was ranked as 28% with the use of 28 enterprises in the 7th place. Its ratio to total frequency is 6.14. It is also seen that 72% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it. It is noteworthy that approximately 1 in 3 of the sample used this policy, while 2 out of 3 did not.

viii-Reliability

The concept of reliability, which ranks 8th during the frequency of use, was used in 12 of 50 enterprises in the sample. It is seen that 24% of businesses use this expression. 5.26% of all used policy statements are related to reliability. This concept is a concept that should be strengthened with mutual communication and relations in the medium and long term, and it is very important as a concept that keeps commercial and economic life alive. It is expected to be used by all businesses. The fact that more than two thirds of the sample did not use this concept seems to be a deficiency when the logistics enterprises are considered collectively.

ix- Being solution oriented

The concept of being solution-oriented, which ranks 9th during the frequency of use, was used in 11 out of 50 enterprises in the sample. (22% of businesses). 4.82% of all used policy statements are about being Solution-oriented. In addition, it was observed that 78% of the enterprises do not use this concept. This concept is a concept that is needed by businesses that will constantly encounter  problems and are expected to produce fast solutions to problems, and to solve them without growing them, and the facilitator plays a role in commercial and economic life. It is expected to be used by all businesses, especially logistics businesses. It should be noted that the rate regarding this concept is lower than expected.

x- To adapt to innovations

The concept of adapting to innovations, which ranks 10th during the frequency of use, was used in 11 out of 50 enterprises in the sample. (22% of businesses). 4.82% of all used policy statements are related to adapting to innovations. In addition, it has been observed that 78% of the enterprises do not use this concept. This concept is an indispensable concept for businesses that have to keep up to date and renew themselves. It is expected to be used by all businesses as well as by logistics businesses. It is seen that the rate related to this concept is lower than expected.

xi- Continuous inovation

The concept of continuous inovation which ranks 11th during the frequency of use, was used in 10 out of 50 enterprises in the sample. (20% of businesses). 4.39% of all used policy statements are about continuous improvement. In addition, it was seen that 80% of the enterprises included in the sampling did not use this concept

xii- Working with team spirit

The concept of working with team spirit, which ranks 12th during the frequency of use, was used in 10 out of 50 enterprises in the sample. (20% of businesses). 4.39% of all used policy statements are about working with team spirit. It has been observed that 80% of them do not use this concept. This concept is a concept related to business organizations in which informal relations divided into smaller groups should be strong. Logistics companies are also among those that are managed with teams and where informal relationships stand out. It is expected to be used by all businesses as well as by logistics businesses. The rate for this concept would be expected to be higher.

xiii- Trained personnel

The concept of trained personnel, which ranks 13th, is a vital concept for logistics enterprises. Trained staff is 16% with the use of 8 enterprises. Its ratio to total frequency is 3.51. It is also observed that 84% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

Finding qualified and trained personnel in the logistics sector is one of the main problems. For example; International logistics companies require personnel with a good language education. In general, it is extremely important for the person and business that those who want to work in this sector to have an internship and gain experience.

There is this general and unexplained statement on the sample, and there is no information about how to achieve this, how to maintain it, and by what methods. In recruitment processes, it may mean to employ trained personnel, to provide training within the service, to have training, to maintain this in a planned and institutional way, to implement a truly trained personnel policy. It is inevitable for businesses that absorb and apply the educated personnel policy in all dimensions to be successful.

xiv-Sustainable success

The concept of sustainable success, which ranks 14th, is a vital concept for logistics businesses. Sustainable success statement took place as 16% with the use of 8 businesses. Its ratio to total frequency is 3.51. It is also seen that 84% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

The fact that businesses choose this statement as a policy shows that they prefer long-term successes more than temporary successes. In order to realize this policy, daily and medium term business processes should be guided insistently according to this policy.

It can be stated that businesses that do not use this policy statement ignore the returns on sustainable success on an expression basis.

xv-To be respectful to ethical values

The concept of being respectful to ethical values, which is in the 15th place, is a concept that is above all businesses. The statement to be respectful to ethical values took place as 10% with the use of 5 businesses. Its ratio to total frequency is 2.19. It is also seen that 90% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

One of the policies preferred by businesses has been to respect and attach importance to ethical values. Ethical principles; These principles, which are justice, impartiality, honesty, transparency, accountability and protecting the public interest, must be upheld and acted in accordance with them. There is also good management in businesses or businesses that work in accordance with ethical values. In accordance with ethical principles, it is of utmost importance to our corporate success and personal success.

xvi-Motivation

The concept of Motivation, which ranks 16th, is a vital concept for logistics businesses. Trained personnel is stated as 10% with the use of 5 enterprises. Its ratio to total frequency is 2.19. It is also seen that 90% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

xvii-Efficient communication

Effective communication concept, which is ranked 17th, is a very important concept for businesses. Effective communication statement took place as 8% with the use of 4 businesses. Its ratio to total frequency is 1.75. It is also observed that 92% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

Specific to the sample, it has been observed that effective communication is minimally included in the policies of businesses, and importance and care is not taken into account. However, the success of all other businesses and transactions can be achieved through effective communication. In order for businesses to reach this awareness, it is necessary for the strategic success to fulfill the theoretical, practical and financial studies required for effective communication with special attention.

xviii- Low cost

Although the concept of trained personnel, which is in the 18th place, is a vital concept for logistics enterprises, it should be considered that it is related to the three functions of the enterprise. Therefore, the external benefit of sharing it with external stakeholders can be discussed. The expression of low cost took place as 6% with the use of 3 enterprises. Its ratio to total frequency is 1.32. It is also observed that 94% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

xix-Be proactive

The concept of being proactive, which ranks 19th, is a vital concept for logistics businesses in times of crisis. The statement of being proactive took place as 4% with the use of 2 businesses. Its ratio to total frequency is 3.51. It is also seen that 96% of the logistics enterprises included in the sampling do not use this expression and close expressions that can replace it.

5. Conclusion and Evaluation

In the study, the most frequently used strategic policy issues in the logistics industry were found. All policies were examined one by one and explanations were made about them. Businesses are generally customer-oriented and employee, providing quality service, efficiency, continuous development, fast and timely delivery, adapting to technology, being sensitive to society and the environment, reliability, being solution-oriented, adapting to innovations, continuous improvement, working with team spirit, trained personnel, sustainable success, respect for ethical values, motivation, effective communication, low cost and being proactive have prioritized themselves. At the same time, we can say that these political concepts are important for the success of businesses. Providing the highest quality service and being customer-oriented has been the leading policy issue for businesses.

Looking at the policy expressions used; service quality is an important criterion for businesses to achieve great success. Providing a quality service also increases customer satisfaction. It can be stated that under today's competitive conditions, one of the issues that logistics enterprises have to pay attention to is quality. Therefore, in order to provide competitive advantage, businesses should plan to work in a way that satisfies consumers by producing quality service. Although the concept of quality  is in the first place in terms of policy, it is seen that there is a problem of perceiving only as product and service quality. However, quality is a comprehensive concept that concerns all business processes. Emphasis on quality and its effect should be seen in all processes, plans, procedures, instructions and forms. In this respect, emphasis on quality, implementation and understanding are seen as lacking on the sample in the companies examined in the study. When the policy sentences of businesses are examined, it is understood that routine, quotes and similar sentences are included, and these statements are not specific to the business.

There are controversies on the issue of ethics, usually stemming from relativity. But even sticking to a small number of undisputed ethical principles can make a business a business committed to ethical values. Some of these ethical values are to give the employees their rights, not to mislead  the customer, to be fair in price, to fully fulfill the responsibilities to the state, to give importance to health and the environment. For businesses, it is important that this important policy statement is indispensable for business life without remaining in a sentence, and for this, the top management is an example to other employees with practical examples. Establishing a good ethical values system will increase trust and positively affect the success of the entire business. The issue of ethics seems to be  an important business necessity in all cultures. The biggest problem between today's producers of goods and services and their consumers arises from the differences between shown, advertised and actual.

A business managed by strategic management does not prefer short-term returns to long-term ones, targets long-term success and is aware that it can make a loss if necessary in the short term.

The most important issue for businesses is the motivation of employees. Since the logistics sector is a stressful sector, it can be said that the need for motivation is higher than other sectors. The higher the motivation of the employee, the more success is predicted to be achieved. For this, efforts should be made to increase the motivation of the employees.

Classical and sector-specific holiday opportunities such as wage increase, promotion, social activities should be carried out to increase the original motivation. It is observed that motivation is not included enough in the policies, and the issue of motivation is fulfilled irregularly with daily practices without institutionalization.

In an environment where the smallest detail is important in interpersonal relationships in the business, special attention should be given to relationships, and any behavior that will make people feel worthless should be prevented. The priority should be not to harm motivation.

Since people, both as employees, managers and customers, have feelings, predictions and plans, it is not possible to motivate them for a long time with false motivational displays. Employees must feel that they really belong to the business and are an important part of the business. This situation should be demonstrated strongly both in monetary and non-monetary ways.

Logistics businesses are geographically dispersed businesses in terms of their stakeholders. Therefore, remote communication requires making use of technology and using technological communication tools effectively. Alternative communication methods and techniques that complement this gap should be implemented for personnel who cannot experience the advantages of face-to-face communication. Low cost is one of the most important ways to provide better service to the customer at a cheaper cost for all businesses in general and especially for logistics businesses. Although it is appropriate for businesses to adopt this policy, it gives the impression that it is not a policy that is emphasized in terms of being in the last place in policy choices.

He is a solution-oriented and hardworking person who carefully filters the events outside himself, uses his emotional and spiritual intelligence in a sensitive harmony, thinks positively, encourages him. It conducts risk analysis for each option and lives at peace with itself and its environment. It blends knowledge and intellectual abilities with common sense and uses it with high efficiency. It is clear that such proactive employees are needed in the logistics sector.

In practice, it is seen that the policy of being proactive is preferred in the last place within the scope of the sample. It should be thought that this concept, which is used especially in the sense of being prepared for crises, should not be lately. Because the logistics sector is a sector with a high tendency to be exposed to crises.

In order to be truly proactive, the enterprise should have detailed risk analysis, identify priority risks and precautions, and keep all the factors ready for the required solution when the risk occurs.

In order to make a more accurate interpretation on the enterprises in terms of using the policy statement, the logistics enterprises that do not include the relevant statements as policies are also seen in the table.2. The policy expressions that should not be abandoned in terms of logistics enterprises are not used in a considerable part of the enterprises, thus causing a perception that these policies are not intended in the strategic management process.

It has become clear that in order to grow economically, policies in the logistics sector should be determined and future plans should be made on these political concepts.

Although all policy sentences are shared positively and in a way that can move the business forward, the use of similar phrases, quotations, and occasional contradictions with other shares of the business, creates an impression that the policies are not internalized and are not real policies. In order for the policies to be realistic, assimilated, adopted and original, by spending effort, money and time, by creating them together as required by the governance principle, and most importantly, by integrating them into institutionalization, the effectiveness of these policies will increase.

It may also be suggested to include concepts such as generation z, artificial intelligence, globalization, flexibility and creativity that are not included in the policy statement findings. In the  policy statements, especially the global understanding of the generations, the z generation, the transition to virtual business, and health-related sensitivities should also have been mentioned.

The most important issue that needs to be emphasized here is that the stated policies are compatible with the implemented policies. Senior management should make a serious effort in this regard. Day- to-day occupation often prevents managers from thinking strategically.

Since only "policy statements" are included in the scope of this study, measuring customer  satisfaction, market share, product and service quality and measuring whether they overlap with policy statements, again, whether policies are determined by senior management or governance may be the subject of another study.

References
AKDEMIR, Ali et al., (2018), Strategic Management, Anadolu University publication, Eskişehir.
ALAGOZ, A ve CERAN, Y. (2007) Logistics Cost Management: Logistics Costs and Logistics Cost Accounting, Journal of Management Sciences,.
AYAZ, I, and others, (2018) Examination of Communication Skills of Personnel Working in Logistics Sector,.
BAKI, B., (2004) Logistics Management and Logistics Sector Analysis. Trabzon: Lega Bookstore.
CAMPBELL, A. & YEUNG, S. (1991). Creating A Sense Of Mission. Long Range Planing. 24 (4), 10-20.
CARROLL, A. B. & BUCHHOLZ, A. K. (2008). Business And Society: Ethicsand Stakeholder Management. Ohio: South Western College Publishing. [Google Scholar]
AGILE, S. KAYA, S. "Turkey's logistics potential in terms of Izmir and Logistics Operations Status (SWOT) Analysis", Izmir Chamber of Commerce, the R & D Newsletter, November 2010-sectoral, 22-28.
DINCER, O, (1998) Strategic Management and Business Policy, Beta Basım Yayım Dagıtım A.Ş., Istanbul, p.6.
ERDAL, M. and SAYGILI, M. (2007) Management-Organization and Fleet Management in Logistics Businesses, UTIKAD Publications, Istanbul,.
EREN, E, Strategic Management and Business Policy, Beta Basım Yayım Dagıtım A.Ş., Istanbul, 2000, p.1.
ERK, B. (2014) Logistics Industry and Competitiveness in Turkey. ASSAM International Refereed Journal (ASSAM - UHAD), Kilis 7 Aralık University, FEAS, Department of Economics,.
http://eab.ege.edu.tr/pdf/3/C1-S1-2-M2.pdf (access: 10.06.2016).
http://lojistikplatform.blogspot.com/2017/04/tasmaclk-cesitleri-nendir.html(access: 10.06.2016).
http://www.logisticsclub.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2(access: 10.06.2016).
http://www.megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/moduller_pdf/Lo Lojistik%20Y%C3%B6netimi.pdf(access: 20.06.2016).
http://www.onlinedergi.com/eab/Giris.aspx (access: 19.06.2016).
http://www.sektorel.com/yazarlar/nilgun-yalim-eren/proaktif-reaktif-olmak(access: 13.06.2016).
http://www.ulasimgazetesi.com/kose-yazisi/8740/lojistikte-etkin -takim-calismasina-neden-ihtiyac-var.html(access: 11.06.2016).
IPEKGIL, O. and HERGULLU, I. (2009) Outsourcing in Logistics Functions: 3PL Logistics, nine September university social sciences institute business department production management program master's thesis,.
PEOPLE H., (1992) "in maritime transport in Turkey Major Land Plant, The Role of Institutions and Organizations" Izmir.
KOZAMI, A., (2002) Business Policy and Strategic Management, 2e, Tata McGraw-Hill Education,.
OZDENER, H., (2010) Total Quality Management in Logistics, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Kadir Has University, Istanbul,.
PORTER, M. E. (1998). On Competition, USA: Harvard Business Review Book.
POSACI, H., (2002) Strategy and Policy, p. one,.
TEK, O. and OZGUL, (2005) E. Modern Marketing Principles, Applied Management Approach, Birleşik Matbaacılık, İzmir,.
WHEELEN L. And others, (2015) Strategic Management And Business Policy Globalization, Innovation, And Sustainability, Fourteenth Edition, Pearson Education Inc.

Cite this:
APA Style
IEEE Style
BibTex Style
MLA Style
Chicago Style
Atasever, M. & Çürük, S. (2018). The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses. J. Corp. Gov. Insur. Risk Manag., 5(2), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.56578/jcgirm050205
M. Atasever and S. Çürük, "The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses," J. Corp. Gov. Insur. Risk Manag., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 78-93, 2018. https://doi.org/10.56578/jcgirm050205
@research-article{Atasever2018TheUO,
title={The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses},
author={Mesut Atasever and Semiye çüRüK},
journal={Journal of Corporate Governance, Insurance, and Risk Management},
year={2018},
page={78-93},
doi={https://doi.org/10.56578/jcgirm050205}
}
Mesut Atasever, et al. "The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses." Journal of Corporate Governance, Insurance, and Risk Management, v 5, pp 78-93. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/jcgirm050205
Mesut Atasever and Semiye çüRüK. "The Use of Strategic Policy Statements on the Basis of Concepts, An Evaluation in Logistics Businesses." Journal of Corporate Governance, Insurance, and Risk Management, 5, (2018): 78-93. doi: https://doi.org/10.56578/jcgirm050205
cc
©2018 by the author(s). Published by Acadlore Publishing Services Limited, Hong Kong. This article is available for free download and can be reused and cited, provided that the original published version is credited, under the CC BY 4.0 license.